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THE PROVINCES &f 

Edited by 

GEORGE FLETCHER, F.G.S., M.R.I.A. 



MUNSTER 




J*.X.JL. ae xcs.tr TS TtE:s3e:i^VE;x> 



M U N S : T E R 



Edited by 

OEORGE FLETCHER, F.G.S., M.R.I.A. 



With Maps, Diagrams and IlJustratic 



CAMBRIDGE 

AT TWE UNIVERSITY PRESS 
1921 



EDITOR'S NOTE 

THE aim of this series is to offer, in a readable form, an 
account of the physical features of Ireland, and of the 
economic and social activities of its people. It deals 
therefore -with matters of fact rather than with matters 
of opinion ; and, for this reason, it has happily been 
found possible to avoid political controversy. Ireland 
deserves to be known for her varied scenery, her wealth 
of archaeological and antiquarian lore, her noble educa- 
tional traditions, and her literary and artistic achieve- 
ments. The progress and status of Ireland as an 
agricultural country are recognised and acknowledged, 
but her industrial potentialities have, until recently, been 
inadequately studied. The causes of the arrested 
development of her industries have been frequently 
dealt with. Her industrial resources, however, demand 
closer attention than they have hitherto received ; 
their economic significance has been enhanced by 
modern applications of scientific discovery and by 
world- wide economic changes. It is hoped that these 
pages may contribute to the growing movement in the 
direction of industrial reconstruction. 

It is unusual to enlist the services of many writers in 
a work of modest dimensions, but it was felt that the 
more condensed an account, the more necessary was it 



\i MUNSTER 

to secure authoritative treatment. It is hoped that the 
names of the contributors will afford a sufficient guarantee 
that the desired end has been achieved. The editorial 
task of co-ordinating the work of these contributors 
has been made light and agreeable by their friendly 
co-operation. 

The scope of the volumes and the mode of treatment 
adopted in them suggest their suitability for use in the 
higher forms of secondary schools. A notable reform 
is in course of accomplishment in the teaching of geog- 
raphy. The list of place-names is making room for the 
more rational study of a country in relation to those 
who dwell in it, and of these dwellers in relation to their 
environment, 

G. F. 
.DUBLIN, November ist, 1921 



CONTENTS 



ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY. By R. A. STEWART 

MACALISTER, Litt.D., F.S.A., Professor of Celtic 
Archaeology, University College, Dublin. 

ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY ...... i 

Population ........ 5 

TOPOGRAPHY. By R. LLOYD PRAKGER, B.A., B.E., 

M.R.I. A., Librarian, National Library of Ireland. 

TOPOGRAPHY ........ 6 

Mountains . . . . . . . . 12 

Rivers and Lakes . . . . . . 18 

Traffic Routes . . . . . . - 35 

Round the Coast ....... zg 

Counties and Towns . . . . . . 38 

Co. Kerry. ....... 38 

Co. Cork ........ 42 

Co. Waterforcl ....... 48 

Co. Tipperary ....... 48 

Co. Limerick . . . . . . . 51 

Co. Clare ........ 52 

G-EOLOGY. By ISAAC SWAIN, B.A., A.R.C.Sc., M.R.I. A., 
Professor of Geology and Geography, University 

College, Cork ....... 53 

THE GLACIAL PERIOD . .... 64 

SOILS ......... 73 

MINES, MINERALS, AND QUARRIES .... 74 



viii MUNSTER 

PAGE 

BOTANY. By K. LLOYD PRAEGER, B.A., B.E., M.R.I.A 

BOTANY ......... 78 

Mac gillie uddy's Reeks ...... So 

The Killamey Lakes 82 

Cork ......... 84 

The Biirren Limestones ..... 84 

The Galtees ....... 87 

The Shannon Estuary ...... 88 

Louph l>erg ....... 88 

ZOOLOGY. By R. LLOYD PRAEGER, B.A., B.E., M.R.I.A. 92 

ANTIQUITIES. By E. C. R. ARMSTRONG, F.S. A., M.R.I.A., 
Keeper of Irish Antiquities, National Museum, 

Dublin ........ 104 

ARCHITECTURE. By E. C. R. ARMSTRONG, F.S.A., 

M.R.I.A 117 

Monastic Foundations . . . , . .117 

Cathedrals ........ 126 

Churches ........ 134 

Castles ........ 135 

ADMINISTRATION. By G. FLETCHER, F.G.S., M.R.I.A., 

Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruc- 
tion for Ireland . . . . . . .139 



Education 



141 



INDUSTRIES AND MANUFACTURES. By G. FLETCHER, 

F.G.S., M.R.I.A i 49 

Agriculture . . . . . . . .156 

Fisheries ........ 158 

DISTINGUISHED MUNSTRRMEN. By R.I BEST D Litt 

' "' 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PACK 



Cottages in the Killarney Mountains . . . 14 

Macgillicuddy's Reeks, Killarney . . . . 16 

Weir and Sluices, Killaloe . . . . . 21 

The Lee at St Patrick's Bridge, Cork ... 23 

Listowel and Ballybunion Railway . . . 28 

Valencia Harbour, Co. Kerry . . . . 33 

Tore Waterfall, Killarney . . . . . 41 

Cork, West End 43 

Grand Parade, Cork ...... 44 

Cobh (Queenstown) Cathedral and Church Hill, Co. 

Cork ........ 45 

Cobh (Queenstown) Harbour .... 47 

Waterford, from the West ..... 49 

The Old Quay, Clonmel ..... 50 

Stalactite-Stalagmite Pillar in Cave, Mitchelstown . 59 

Limestone Terraces, Co. Clare .... 60 

The Cliffs at Kilkee, Co. Clare . . . . 61 

Roche moutonnee at Loo Bridge, Co. Kerry . . 65 

Perched Block, Co. Kerry ..... 69 

Glaciated Rock Surface, Co. Cork . . . . 71 

Terraces at Inniscarra on the River Lee . . 72 

Pinguicula grandiflora ...... 79 



x MUNSTER 

PAGE 

Strawberry Tree at the Upper Lake, Killarney . 81 

Black Head, Co. Clare, Saxifraga Sternbergii in the 

foreground ....... 85 

The Kerry Slug . . . . . . 98 

LimiKiea pnrtenuis ..... .99 

Holy Cross Abbey, Co. Tippcrary . . . . 118 

Eonis Friary, Co. Clare ..... 121 

Trinitarian Friary, Adare, Co. Limerick . . 123 

Franciscan Friary, Adare ..... 125 

Corcomroe Abbey, Co. Clare .... 127 

The Keep, Desmond Castle, Adare . . . 136 

Thomond Bridge and King John's Castle, Limerick. 137 
University College, Cork . . . . .141 

Crawford Municipal Technical Institute, Cork . . 143 

Hanlbowline . . . . , . .145 

Training College, Limerick . . . . .146 

Ursiiiine Convent, Waterford .... 148 

Twisting Machines in a Woollen Factory . . 152 

Creamery, Tipperary . . . . . .157 

Lax Weir Salmon Fisheries . . , , -159 

Salmon Crib, Lax Weir . . . . .160 

John Philpot Curran . . . . . .162 

Field-Marshal Viscount Gough .... 165 

Rev. George Salmon, D.D. ..... 159 

Luke Wadding . . , . . . .170 



ILLUSTRATIONS 
MAPS AND DIAGRAMS 



PAGE 



Geological Map of Ireland .... Front Cover 

Munster (land over 500 feet elevation) ... 7 

The East-and-West River Valleys .... 9 

Munster (land over 250 feet elevation) . . . 10 

Map showing East and West trend of Southern 

Railways ....... 27 

The Railway climb out of Cork . . . . 27 

Cork Harbour diagrammatic 34 

Cork Harbour actual . . . . . . 35 

The Killarney District 40 

Physical-Political Map of Munster . . End of book 

The" illustrations on pp. 14, 16, 23, 28, 33, 41, 43, 44, 45, 47, 49, 50, 137, 
141, 145, 146, 148, 157 are reproduced from photographs by Valentine & 
Sons, Ltd. ; those on pp. 21, 159, 160 from photographs by Mr G. 
Fletcher ; that on p. 81 from a photograph by Mr R. Welch ; those on 
pp. 121, 123, 125 from photographs by Mr T. J. Westropp ; that on p. 152 
from a photograph supplied by Martin Mahony & Bros., Ltd. ; those on 
pp. 162, 169, 170 from photographs by Mr T. F. Geoghegan ; that on 
p. 165 by permission of Viscountess Gough and of Constable & Co., Ltd. 

Acknowledgments are due to the Department of Agriculture and 
Technical Instruction for Ireland, and to the Royal Irish Academy, for 
permission to use illustrations which have appeared in their publications, 



MUNSTER 

ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY 

THE oldest source of information that we possess 
regarding the ancient geography of Ireland is contained 
in the work of the second-century Alexandrian, Ptolemy. 
The following are the geographical names which he 
gives for the region now called the province of 
Munster : on the West Coast, the River Dour, probably 
one of the inlets of the sea (such as the Kenmare 
river) at the south-west of Ireland. South of this 
is the Hiernos Potamos another of these estuaries. 
This south-west corner of the island was, according to 
Ptolemy, inhabited by a tribe called the Vellabroi, of 
whom we hear again in the fifth century historian Orosius, 
but apparently nowhere certainly in Irish traditional 
history. At the angle was the Notion Akron, which 
perhaps it is hopeless to identify with certainty among 
the headlands of that complicated coast-line. Turning to 
the south coast, we meet the Dabrona river, with a town 
Ivernis upon it, inhabited by people called Ivernoi. The 
position identifies these with the River Lee (Sabhrann 1 - 
in Irish), Cork, and the people there dwelling. The 
only other place-name is the River Birgos, whose name 
and position identify it with the Barrow (or rather 
the estuary of the Barrow and Suir). The sea west 

1 On the relation between the names Dabrona and Sabhrann, 
see the volume on Ireland in this series. 

m A 



2 MUNSTER 

of Ireland Ptolemy calls the Okeanos Dutikos ; that to 
the south, the Okeanos Vergionos. 

The modern name of Munster, like Ulster and Leinster, 
is a hybrid, consisting of the Scandinavian suffix -ster 
(staSr) added to the ancient name Mumha (genitive, 
Mumhan). From the native name is derived the ad- 
jective Mamonian, found, e.g., in Moore's Irish Melodies. 
The geographical history of this province is extremely 
complicated, and only the barest outline can be given 
here. As many as five " Munsters " are recognised by 
native Irish writers : these are Tuadh-Mumha (Anglicised 
"Thomond," or North Munster) ; Ur-Mumha (" Ormond," 
East Munster) ; Mumha Meadhon (Central Munster) ; 
Dcas-Mumha (" Desmond," South Munster) ; and lar- 
Mumha (West Munster). The first and fourth of these, 
North and South Munster, were the names of the two 
provinces of Munster at times when the whole province 
was sub-divided. 

The territorial divisions of Munster were very numer- 
ous, and only the most important can be mentioned 
here. Among them were the Ddl gCais (pronounced Daul 
Gash) in Tuadh-Mumha, corresponding to the modern 
county of Clare. This was the sept to which the king 
Brian B6roimhe belonged. They were a Munster people 
who conquered and occupied this district ; till that 
event it had been reckoned to Connacht. The Ui 
Fidhgheinte, the descendants of a third century king 
of Munster, occupied the western part of Co. Limerick. 
The Ciar-raighe, or tribe of Ciar (a son of Fergus and 
the famous queen Meadhbh of Connacht) ; this was a 
sept with several branches, one of which settled in 
Luachair (West Kerry) ; from their name the word 
*' Kerry " is derived. In the barony of Iveragh in 



ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY 3 

Kerry were settled the Ui Rdthach, and round Loch, 
Lein (Killarney) were the Eoghan-acht, or people of 
Eoghan. The Corcu Duibhne inhabited the Dingle 
peninsula (now Corkaguiney) and other parts of the 
county of Kerry. The ancient territorial name Berre 
survives in the modern barony of Bear, Co. Cork. 
Other peoples were the Muintear Bdire in West 
Carbury, Co. Cork ; the Corcu Laighde (to which the 
sept of the O'Driscolls belong) in the baronies of Carbury, 
Beare, and Bantry ; the Ceneal mBeice, in the modern 
barony of Kinalmeaky (the name of which fairly re- 
presents the old pronunciation), the Ui Liathdin, the 
descendants of Eochu Liathanach, in the baronies of 
Barrymore and Kinatalloon, and the Ui Fothaid, the 
descendants of Fothad, in the barony of Iffa and Offa, 
Co. Tipper ary. The Fir Muighe Feine, or men of the 
plain of Fene, are still remembered in the name of the 
town of Fermoy. An important people was the Musc- 
raighe, the descendants of Coirpre Muse, son of Conaire 
Mor (king of Ireland, according to the Annals, from B.C. 
108 to B.C. 39) : these held various territories in Co. Cork, 
and the baronies of Muskerry preserve their name. We 
may also mention Eile, a territory in the south of King's 
Co., and north of Tipperary, the Corcu Athrach in 
Tipperary, and the Deisi in the baronies of Decies, Co. 
Waterford. 1 

1 Most of these names express the descent of the leading family 
of the territory from an ancestor, either by suffixing a syllable, as 
-acht, -raighe, -which turns the personal name to a tribal designa- 
tion ; or by prefixing a -word such as Ui, " descendants," or Dal, 
Corcu, Ceneal, " race, sept," to the name of the ancestor in the 
genitive case. The ancestor is either a historical character, or 
else a mythical being, generally a god : but the subject arid the, 
origin of these family names are very obscure. 



4 MUNSTER 

An important region is Co. Tipperary called Magh 
Feimhein (Magh, pronounced something like mwa, means 
"plain"). It seems to have been a sacred plain, the centre 
of the worship of the goddess Brighid. In this plain was 
the fairy palace of the mythical king Bodhbh Dearg, of 
whom we read in the story of the Children of Lir ; and it 
was dominated by the mountain called Sliabh na mBaii 
Finn (now Slievenaman) , "hill of the white women" 
unquestionably a group of goddesses ; and by 
the enormous tumulus Cnoc Rafann, the largest arti- 
ficial earth-mound in Ireland. Though this in outline 
resembles a Norman " motte," the exceptional size of 
the structure points to the probability of its being much 
earlier in origin. It might well have been scarped and 
otherwise manipulated by the Normans to serve their 
own purposes. 

The shiring of Munster is as old as King John's time ; 
Waterford, Cork, Limerick, Kerry, and Tipperary all 
appear as counties in documents of his period. But the 
division was not maintained throughout the whole 
period of the Plantagenets and Tudors, though the 
complex history of the delimitations and names of the 
shires and territories would hardly be in place here ; it 
has little to do with the geography viewed in its bearing 
on the population. It is, however, interesting to notice 
that Tipperary remained a county palatine (that is, 
a county to the administrator of which sovereign power . 
was delegated) till 1715, when the second Duke of 
Ormond was attainted and his jurisdiction abolished. 
This was the last relic of a form of government that had 
at the beginning of the English occupation been estab- 
lished over most of the country. 



ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY 5 

POPULATION 

According to Beddoe's observations, the population 
of the province is very mixed in type. Almost the 
largest proportion of dark-haired and dark-eyed people 
in Ireland were found in Mallow, Co. Cork ; and next to 
the upper classes in Dublin, among which are probably 
many of recent English origin, the fairest people in 
Ireland were found at Charleville, Co. Limerick. The 
people at other centres lay evenly distributed between 
these extremes. The colour seems to darken as we 
proceed from east to west, and from south to north ; 
though there are some exceptions, notably a very dark 
centre at Cappoquin, Co. Waterford. 

In stature the western and southern provinces are 
on the whole slightly taller than the people of the north 
and east. The cephalic index (see Ireland volume) 
ranges from 77.1 in West Munster to 76.7 in East 
Munster ; the heads of the Munstermen are distinctly 
longer than those of the Connachtmen. 

The Irish of the province of Munster is perhaps 
slightly harsher to the ear than that of Connacht, owing 
to the emphasis laid on the final "gutturals : the 
musical inflexions of the consonantal sounds, though 
observed in Munster as in the other provinces, are 
scarcely heard with the delicate perfection of the 
best Connacht speakers. Owing to the depletion of 
Munster by emigration, the Irish language has 
declined in Munster as in Connacht, though it 
has gained ground in the other two provinces. In 
1891 there were 9060 people in Munster who could 
speak Irish only, and a total number of 307,663 Irish 
speakers (26.2 per cent, of the total population of the 



6 MUNSTER 

province). In 1901 these figures had sunk respectively 
to 4387 and 276,268 respectively, and in 1911 to 2766 
and 228,694, the latter representing a percentage of 
22.1 of the whole population. 



TOPOGRAPHY 

MUNSTER is the southern province of Ireland, including 
roughly all the area west and south of Waterford Haven 
and Galway Bay. It is the largest of the four Irish 
provinces, having an area of 9536 square miles ; Ulster 
comes next with 8567 square miles, Cormaught last 
with 6802. Munster has also the longest and most 
diversified coast-line. 

The boundary of Munster is a sinuous line running 
from Galway Bay to Waterford Haven, and separating 
the counties of Clare, Tipperary, and Waterford on the 
south from Galway, King's County, Queen's County, 
Kilkenny, and Wexford on the north. Leaving the 
southern shore of Galway Bay, the line climbs across 
the eastern end of the strange grey hills of Burren, 
descends into the plain of central Clare, climbs again 
across the desolate moors of the Slieve Aughty range, 
and descends to the Shannon about half-way along the 
great lake-like expanse of Lough Derg. Thence it 
follows that river northward for some seventeen miles, 
turning eastward again along the line of the Little 
Brosna river. It zigzags over the limestone pastures 
as far south as Toomyvara and north again to Roscrea, 
where it crosses the main watershed of Ireland between 
the ranges of Slieve Bloom and Devil's Bit, and runs 



TOPOGRAPHY 7 

away south-east over rather featureless country between 
Tipperary and Kilkenny to join the River Suir a couple 
of miles below the town of Carrick. Thence the river 
forms the boundary, with Co. Waterford on the southern 
side and Kilkenny and finally Wexford on the northern, 




Munster 

(Land over 500 feet elevation shown in black] 

till the sea is reached in the spacious estuary of Waterford 
Haven. 

Excepting certain broad flat tracts within the Shannon 
basin in the west, Munster is a hilly region, and it includes 
most of the highest mountains found within the country. 
Three groups rise to over 3000 feet, an elevation else- 
where attained only in Wicklow. 

The leading natural features of the province, and also 



8 MUNSTER 

those relating to human activities mountain-ranges, 
valleys, rivers, coast-line, railways, roads, the position 
of the towns and the distribution of farmed land and 
of population are closely bound up with a striking 
feature which is fully dealt with in the section relating 
to" Geology, but which must be recalled here if the topog- 
raphy of the province is to be understood. In very 
ancient times this portion of the earth's crust was so 
crushed together that it became folded thrown into a 
series of ridges and furrows, whose direction lay east 
and west, or north-east and south-west. The covering 
of limestone which at that time spread over the area 
has since been to a great extent removed, exposing, 
especially on the ridges, solid masses of slates and sand- 
stones which lay below. In many of the valleys the 
limestone still remains. The rivers too, which after 
the folded area had been smoothed by denudation, 
flowed southward across it, have had their original 
sources cut up by the great development of tributaries 
running from west to east along the bands of slate 
and limestone remaining in the downfolds. These 
'subsequent" streams now form, for instance, the 
more important parts of the Blackwater and the Lee, 
and the original " consequent " courses are seen only in 
their final reaches, marked by an abrupt southward 
bend of the river. On the uplands north of these bends, 
" beheaded " remnants or dry gaps represent the courses 
of the former principal streams. For further information 
on this extremely interesting feature, the classic paper 
of J. B. Jukes (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. xviii., 
p. 378 ) ought to be consulted. As a general result 
of this folding and subsequent denudation we have 
now a series of great east - and - west ridges and 



10 MUNSTER 

valleys, which produce the magnificent mountainous 
promontories and deep sea-inlets of Cork and Kerry, 
and determine the direction of the rivers and to 
a great extent of the railways in the southern 
part of the province. In the northern portion of 




Munster 

(Land over 250 feet elevation shown -in black] 

Munster in Clare, North Tipperary, and Limerick 
results of this period of folding are not so obvious. 
The northern and eastern parts of Tipperary present 
many areas of typical Central Plain country ^wide- 
stretching limestone pastures with occasional peat-bogs. 
As we travel south-westward the mountain-ridges and 
valleys assume more and more a trend in the direc- 



TOPOGRAPHY n 

tion indicated, till in Western Cork and Kerry the 
wilderness of mountain is only interrupted by the deep 
sea-filled valleys called Bantry Bay, Kenmare River, 
and Dingle Bay. Northern Clare has a type of scenery 
of its own, which will be described later ; south of this, 
stretching across the Shannon and on to Killarney, is a 
wide area of broad, bleak, boggy hills, formed of shales 
the least interesting stretch of country to be found in 
Munster. 

In Munster the phenomena which characterise the 
Irish climate a slight annual range of temperature, a 
high rainfall, and a high degree of humidity all attain 
their most emphatic expression. In January the iso- 
therm of 42 F. includes more than half the province, 
while in South Cork and South Kerry the temperature 
during that (the coldest) winter month is above 44. 
The summers are correspondingly cool, the average 
July temperature of Munster being between 59 and 60. 
As regards precipitation, while in Tipperary this is 
moderate about 40 inches it rises as one passes 
south-west, so that the 5o-inch curve includes West Cork 
and the greater part of Kerry. As one approaches the 
main mountain mass of Kerry, 60 inches and 70 inches 
are passed, and among the Reeks the rainfall is probably 
much higher even than this. The effect of the perennial 
humidity is evidenced in a remarkable manner by the 
vegetation ; nowhere in the British Isles do moisture- 
loving mosses and ferns flourish so luxuriantly as in 
Kerry. The prevailing westerly winds, which are the 
cause of this excessive moisture, are also responsible 
for the absence of trees in the more exposed western 
tracts, and of even bushes on many of the islands and 



12 MUNSTER 

headlands ; though where shelter is afforded luxuriant 
vegetation at once puts in an appearance. 

MOUNTAINS 

Far to the eastward, in Co. Waterford, the Comeraghs 
form a highly picturesque group of hills of irregular 
shape. They present an imposing series of lofty sand- 
stone scarps, and their summits lie mostly between 
2000 and 2600 ft. The Comeraghs derive their name 
from the deep coombs, embosoming lakes, which form 
their most striking feature. The most notable of these, 
Coomshingaun, presents a sheer cliff over 1000 ft. in 
height, dropping into a deep lakelet at its foot. 

North of the Comeraghs, across the valley of the Suir, 
in Tipperary, the broad cone of Slievenaman (2295 ft.) 
rises solitary and dominates the country for many miles. 

Not many miles west of the Comeraghs, the Knock- 
mealdown Mountains form a bold east-and-west ridge, 
dropping into the Suir valley on the north and the 
valley of the Blackwater on the south. They present 
a bold row of peaks of over 2000 ft., the highest point 
being 2609 ft. A picturesque road climbs across the 
centre of the range, ascending to over noo ft. 

A few miles north-west of the Knockmealdowns, 
across a limestone trough in which lie the celebrated 
Mitchelstown Caves, a loftier east-and-west ridge, the 
Galtees, towers up, with steep slopes especially to the 
north and west. They attain in Galtymore an elevation 
of 3015 ft, a height reached elsewhere in Ireland only in 
Kerry and Wicklow. This is a compact and picturesque 
mountain group, with several fine coombs embosoming 
lakes on the northern slopes. Lower hills (up to 1700 f t.) , 
known as the Ballyhoura Mountains, continue far to 



TOPOGRAPHY 13 

the west, and are conspicuous from the train about 
Charleville, where the line to Cork passes round their 
flank and turns south to Mallow. 

In North Tipper ary, some 20 to 30 miles north of 
the Galtees, there is a large area of hilly country 
stretching north-westward to the Shannon at Killaloe 
and north-eastward to the Devil's Bit, near the borders 
of King's County. Much the highest point is Slieve 
Kimalta, or Keeper Hill (2278 ft.). A western outlier 
of this range, the Arra Mountains, separated from the 
main mass by a deep narrow valley possibly an old 
course of the Shannon^ forms the eastern side of the 
deep Shannon gorge, where that river, passing between 
high hills, at length escapes from the plain and plunges 
down from Lough Derg to the sea. 

The western side of the Shannon gorge is formed by 
a group of hills known as Slieve Bernagh (1746 ft.). 
Though separated from the Arra Mountains by the 
Shannon and Lough Derg, these two really form a 
single hill - group, through which the river has cut 
its way. 

North of Slieve Bernagh again, in. Clare, there is a 
large area of bleak hilly country rising here and there 
to well over 1000 ft., known as Slieve Aughty. 

All the hill-groups which have been mentioned so far 
are more or less isolated uplands surrounded by limestone 
lowlands, and formed of older slates and sandstones 
(Silurian or Devonian) which have been pushed up 
and now impend, dark and heathery, over the limestone 
grass-lands. 

South of the valley of the Blackwater the limestone 
remains only in a few narrow valley bottoms, and we 
find ourselves in almost continuously broken country, 



14 MUNSTER 

which gets more and more mountainous as we go west- 
ward. The first portion of the hilly country which we 
meet is the upland which lies between the Blackwater 
and Lee valleys in Co. Cork. Through 'a transverse 
"through" valley near its eastern end the main line of 
railway finds its way southward to Cork (see p. 26). 




Cottages in the Killarney Mountains 

Further west the hills attain the dignity of mountains 
(Boggeragh and Derrynasaggart Mountains), where 
Caherbarnagh (2239 ft.) and The Paps (2284 ft.) look 
down on the railway between Millstreet and Killarney. 
Beyond that the broad ridge is interrupted by the 
interesting flat-bottomed narrow valley, overhung by 
high hills, through which the railway and road find 
their way to Kenmare, The question of the origin of 



TOPOGRAPHY . 15 

this pass is dealt with in the section on Geology. West- 
ward the hills divide into two main groups, one 
on either side of Kenmare river, and present, not a 
simple chain, but a wild tangle .of mountains. The 
southern mass runs south-westward for over 50 miles 
between the Kenmare river and Bantry Bay, till it 
terminates in the lofty cliffs of Dursey Island. For 
30 miles from the Macroom-Killarney road to 
Hungry Hill the watershed (which is also the Cork- 
Kerry boundary) keeps above the looo-ft. contour, 
and the three roads which cross the range climb over 
high passes by the aid of numerous zigzags to ease 
their gradient. Many summits rise to 2000-2200 ft., 
the loftiest being Knockboy (2321 ft.). The middle 
portion of the range is known as the Caha Mountains 
and the lower western extremity as Slieve Miskish. 
Towns or villages among the hills there are none ; the 
centres of population, which are small and few, lie along 
the coast at the foot of the mountains on the northern 
side Kenmare, and on the southern Glengarriff and 
Castletown Berehaven. 

The northern of the two mountain masses forms 
similarly a great promontory, as long (some 40 miles) 
as the other, and twice as broad. It has the sea-inlet 
called the Kenmare river for its south-eastern boundary 
and the broader Dingle Bay on its north-western side. 
On the north a deep narrow trough of limestone runs 
from Killarney westward to Dingle Bay, down which 
the River Flesk, which drains the Lakes of Killarney, 
meanders to the sea. This tract of some 600 square 
miles is filled with mountains, which include the 
highest peaks in Ireland. Far to the east, between 
Killarney and the Kenmare valley, the broad mass of 



i6 



MUNSTER 



Mangerton (2756 ft.) dominates a number of lower 
summits. 

Westward a few miles, across the deep gash in which, 
lies the Upper Lake of Killarney, Macgillicuddy's 
Reeks rise head and shoulders above the surrounding 




Macgillicuddy's Reeks, Killarney 

sea of hills. These are a beautiful group of lofty cones, 
with steep sides and many imposing cliff ranges, and 
deep coombs in which lie dark tarns. The loftiest 
Carrantuohill, the highest mountain in Ireland, attains 
3414 ft., and several of the other peaks exceed '3000 ft 
At the east end of the Reeks the famous Gap of Dunloe" 
through which a road runs, separates them from the 



TOPOGRAPHY 17 

Purple Mountain group which looks down on the Lower 
Lake. 

Running south-west from the Reeks, an irregular 
chain of peaks of over 2000 ft. forms a barrier almost 
to the extremity of the promontory at Derrynane. 
Lower ground along the north-western base of this 
ridge allows a road to traverse the whole length of 
the promontory in a parallel direction. North of this 
line again high hills rise and stretch on to the coast of 
Dingle Bay. 

The low limestone depression that runs from Killarney 
to the sea at Dingle Bay zigzags back eastward to Castle- 
island and back again to the sea at Tralee. 

Westward from this valley, and quite cut off from the 
continuous mass of mountains which have just been 
dealt with, a wild mountain chain protrudes far into 
the Atlantic, terminating in the Blasket Islands, which 
are themselves steep mountain peaks rising out of 
the ocean. For 45 miles this highland extends, with a 
breadth of 6 to 12 miles. The hills divide themselves 
into three groups : in the east Slieve Mish (2796 ft,), 
in the centre the Beenoskee group (2713 ft), and 
beyond that the glorious knife-edge ridge of Brandon 
(3127 ft.). 

Inland, to the east of the Dingle promontory, a large 
area of rather low, boggy hills extends over parts of 
Kerry, Cork, and Limerick, stretching northward to 
the Shannon. Many flattish summits rise to from 
1000 to 1400 ft. The district is rather desolate, 
and the soft, shaly rocks produce no features of 
interest.' The same type of surface is continued 
northward across the Shannon into Central Clare. 
Continuing northward we enter, in the barony of 
m B 



i8 MUNSTER 

Burren, a very different and extremely interesting 
upland. 

The Burren is formed of limestone hills of about 
1000 ft. in height (Slieve Elva rises to 1134 ft.). As 
viewed from a distance, their outlines are gently 
rounded, but among the hills some deep passes and lofty 
cliff ranges are to be found. The feature which gives 
this upland its peculiar character is the limestone 
that almost everywhere is quite bare of covering. 
For mile after mile the grey rock, its surface seamed and 
carved by rain into fantastic shapes, lies open to the 
sky. The beds lie horizontally, and terrace rises above 
terrace. 

The rain sinks into innumerable deep fissures which 
seam the rock, and streams -or standing water are almost 
absent from the area : the drainage is underground, 
and in places the water may be seen gushing from the 
rocks at sea-level. So damp is the climate that the 
absence of soil and stream does not prevent a luxuriant 
vegetation from flourishing wherever a little vegetable 
mould has been left ; and the bare country is actually 
in much demand for sheep-grazing, so sweet and abundant 
are the grasses which spring from every chink. The 
vegetation includes a large number of very interesting 
plants, as described on p. 84. 

RIVERS AND LAKES 

The river systems of Munster divide themselves into 
two groups. In the northern half the Shannon is the 
dominating feature, flowing south-westward through 
a wide plain only occasionally interrupted by hills, 
and draining the whole of Limerick, the greater part 
of Clare, and half of North Tipperary. In the southern 



TOPOGRAPHY 19 

half the drainage has been profoundly affected by the 
east-and-west folding of the country, to which reference 
was made on p. 8, and the rivers conform in a very 
definite manner to conditions imposed by this ancient 
crumpling of the crust. 

Munster touches the Shannon first where the Little 
Brosna river, separating King's County from Tipperary, 
runs into the main stream at Meelick, where one of the 
few rapids of the Shannon interrupts the placid course 
of the river, and locks have been built to assist naviga- 
tion. Thence the broad slow stream meanders down to 
Portumna, where it enters Lough Derg, the lower two- 
thirds of which belong wholly to Munster. Lough Derg 
is some 22 miles in length, and generally about ij 
mile wide, with occasional inlets on either hand which 
increase the width to about twice that amount at 
one point to 9 miles. 

Lough Derg is, in fact, a great river expansion rather 
than a lake, and has been produced mainly by solution 
of the limestone which forms the greater part of its shores. 
The upper end is shallow, with flat limestone country on 
either hand, but as one proceeds down its winding island- 
studded course the scenery gets bolder on account of 
the approach of uplands which close in on either hand, 
till at the lower end the lake lies in a gorge between 
steep hills. These hills are formed of slates, and the 
fact that the river has cut this deep gorge through 
them instead of following a different course eastward 
or westward across the low limestone country is 
the most remarkable feature of Shannon topography. 
Its course is believed to date from a time when the 
great limestone area to the north stood much higher, 
so that the route over Lough Derg formed the easiest 



20 MUNSTER 

way to the sea. The plain was lowered by denuda- 
tion as the Shannon cut its way downward, the rate 
being determined by the rate at which the gorge 
could be cut, since this was the outlet for the removed 
material. As seen now the topography of the middle 
Shannon is very striking. The traveller standing at 
Athlone sees all round him nothing but plain, save to 
the southward, where a distant rim of hills breaks the 
line of the horizon. Towards these hills the river 
takes its course. As one advances, the hills close in 
to right and left, and still the river goes straight on 
for their centre. One gets the idea that the Shannon 
is running uphill. As Lough Derg is entered, it is clear 
that the stream is heading for a deep narrow notch 
which appears far in front. Presently the hills approach 
so as to descend to the water's edge on either hand. 
Their dark heathery summits rise to 1500 and 1700 ft. 
on the east and west. And then at Killaloe the lake- 
like expanse narrows and the Shannon goes foaming 
over ledges of rock to resume further down its placid 
flow over the level limestones. Having in its middle 
course pursued its way for 130 miles over the Limestone 
Plain with a fall of only 51 ft., it now drops 97 ft. in 
18 miles to reach sea-level at Limerick. The great 
estuary which it then forms, over 50 miles in length, 
Is described on p. 31. 

The Suir, rising in the hilly region of North 
Tipperary, flows southward through flat limestone 
country past Thurles, and at Caher passes close by the 
eastern end of the high ridge of the Galtees. Ten miles 
further on, at Newcastle, it finds itself in a cul-de-sac, 
caused by the dominance of the east-and-west ridges 
already referred to frequently. The Suir may at one 



TOPOGRAPHY 21 

time, when the limestone floor occupied a higher level, 
have flowed on between the Knockmealdowns and 
Comeraghs to the sea at Dungarvan or Youghal. But 
now, carried off eastward by a tributary of the old 
consequent river that has its lower reach in Waterford 
Haven, it follows the limestone trough, above which 
the more resisting sandstones form mountain land, 




Weir and Sluices, Killaloe 

bends sharply northward, and then turns eastward 
along the base of the Comeraghs, through Clonmel 
and Carrick-on-Suir (where it becomes tidal) to meet 
the sea at Waterford Haven. The monotony of its 
marshy upper reaches is fully compensated by the 
beauty of its middle course about Caher and Clonmel, 
with the lofty ridges of the Galtees, Knockmealdowns, 
and Comeraghs rising around. 

The west-to-east course of the Blackwater is one of the 
most striking features of the geography of the South 



22 MUNSTER 

of Ireland. Rising on the boggy Coal-measure hills of 
North Kerry, it flows south for some 10 miles to the 
foot of the high hills which are grouped round Caher- 
barnagh (2239 ft.). Then it strikes the upper end of 
a limestone trough which it follows almost due eastward 
for nearly 60 miles to Cappoquin. Then, deserting 
this trough, which continues eastward to meet the sea 
at Dungarvan, it turns abruptly southward, cuts through 
the barrier of slates which all the way has formed its 
southern bank, and flows for 15 miles through 
an interesting and picturesque gorge in places 400 to 
500 ft. deep to reach the sea at Youghal. This east- 
and-west trough is the best marked of those which 
characterise the South of Ireland, and is utilised from 
end to end by railways and main roads. A minor 
parallel valley lying a few miles south of the eastern part 
of the trough is occupied by. an important tributary, 
the River Bride, which enters the main stream a few 
miles below Cappoquin. The gorge between Cappoquin 
and Youghal represents one of the few portions of the 
ancient north-to-south drainage channels which has 
been continuously occupied by a river. In old days it 
bore to the sea the rains which fell on areas to the north- 
ward ; possibly the Suir once continued its southern 
course, and passing between the Knockmealdowns 
and Comeraghs, debouched through this gorge ; now 
the lowering of the limestone troughs by solution has 
diverted it to the eastward, and the old gorge serves to 
discharge waters which, in their turn, reach the ocean 
far to the east of their gathering-grounds. . 

The Lee and the Bandon Rivers reproduce on a smaller 
scale, but still in a striking way, the features just de- 
scribed in the case of the Blackwater, save that their 




8 

O 
U 



3 
tt 





% 
a 



24 MUNSTER 

courses no longer lie to so great an extent on limestone. 
The Lee flows from the romantic mountain - lake of 
Gouganebarra, only 9 miles north of the head of Bantry 
Bay, and runs eastward past Macroom to Cork, where 
it reaches sea-level ; there, like the Blackwater, it turns 
south and cuts through ridges of slate to the ocean ; its 
complicated tidal portion, which forms Cork Harbour, is 
dealt with on p. 46. The Bandon river has a some- 
what similar but more irregular course ; it likewise 
flows eventually southward into the Atlantic between 
bold headlands, forming Kinsale Harbour. 

While the most famous lake in Munster is at 
Killarney, the largest is Lough Derg, which lies 
within the province, save that the northern part of 
its western shore belongs to Galway. The features 
of this large expanse of water have already been 
sketched in the description of the River Shannon (p. 19). 
A few additional particulars may be added here. In 
the limestone portion of the lake that is, the whole 
save the southern end the shores and bottom are very 
irregular, as is usual in lakes due to solution, and the 
depth not great. Islands and reefs abound, and the 
shores are low and rocky. The greatest width nine 
miles, measured east and west from Scarriff Bay and 
Youghal Bay corresponds with the southern edge of 
the limestone. The east-and-west shore-line south of 
this expansion marks the incoming of the non-soluble 
slates, and the lake immediately contracts into a deep 
narrow gut, about I mile across and 100 ft. in depth, 
with high banks. The excessive deepening here is 
probably due to glacial action. 
The lakes of Killarney are described on p. 39. 



TOPOGRAPHY 25 

TRAFFIC ROUTES 

Railways are more sensitive than roads to the 
configuration of the surface of the country, because 
the heavy loads drawn by locomotives tell severely 
when hills are encountered. Thus, while a gradient 
of I in 30 is considered reasonable on a main road, i in 
100 is looked on as a severe hill on a line of railway. 
Thus it comes that, as a study of a map of any hilly 
district will show, the railways follow so far as possible 
river valleys wherever the surface is undulating, often 
reaching by a circuitous but level route a point arrived 
at by road by a bold climb through hills. These con- 
siderations apply in Ireland to the province of Munster 
in particular, because in this area, especially in the 
southern two-thirds of it, a series of strong ridges and 
valleys characterise the surface, running east and west, 
or north-east and south-west. These are the visible 
effects of ancient crushing and folding of this portion 
of the earth's crust, as explained on a previous page. 
Thus easy east-and-west routes are available for the 
railways, but practicable north-and-south routes are 
few. The sketch-map on p. 27 will show how the 
railways have conformed to the existing physical 
conditions. 

Taking Cork, the capital of the province, we see (p. 9) 
that easy routes to east and west lie in the Lee valley and 
its continuation to Youghal, and in the valley of the 
Bandon river. These are availed of in the lines to 
Macroom and Coachford on the west, and in the line to 
Youghal on the east ; while the Cork, Bandon, and South 
Coast Railway, by crossing a low ridge on the south, 
utilises the parallel Bandon valley for a considerable 



26 MUNSTER 

distance. On the other hand, a high broad ridge 
stretching east and west between the valleys of the 
Lee and Blackwater bars the way to the north. 
The outflanking of its barrier is not practicable, and 
it has to be overcome by a heroic climb to the north- 
west, where a transverse depression (one of the 
ancient north-and-south river valleys referred to on 
p. 8), and a north and south consequent valley on 
either side, allow the ridge to be crossed at an 
elevation of about 500 ft. From the station at 
Cork, with its long curved platforms, the line, com- 
mencing to ascend at once, plunges through a three 
quarter mile tunnel under the hill on which the 
barracks stand, and skirting the northern side of 
the city, climbs steeply away, the gradient being 
for a time i in 60, an exceptional slope for a main 
line ; in spite of the power of modern locomotives, 
a second engine has often to be used here. Once 
the summit is reached, 13 miles from Cork, an easy 
descent leads to the Blackwater valley and Mallow, 
whence the way is open to Dublin. As will be seen 
from the map (p. 27), no other railway has been 
constructed across these east-and-west folds; but 
far on either hand, at Waterford and Killarney, 
other lines get northward by passing round their ends. 
The railways of northern Munster mostly branches 
of the Great Southern and Western system need 
no special mention. The nature of the surface 
allows of a loose network of lines, of which 
Limerick is the centre ; from that city railways 
radiate in five directions. Waterford, in the extreme 
east of the province, is another important railway 
centre and port, with six lines of railway radiating 



TOPOGRAPHY 




r 



28 MUNSTER 

from it. Extensive recent improvements here, con- 
nected with the establishment of a fast passenger 
service ma Rosslare (30 miles to the eastward) and 
Fishguard in Wales have resulted in all the lines, 
except the short one to Tramore, being brought into one 
station. A corresponding improvement at Cork has 
recently linked up the Bandon line on the west with 
the lines to Dublin and Queenstown (now Cobh). 




Listowel and Ballybunion Railway 

Special mention may be made of the Listowel and 
Ballybunion Railway in North Kerry, since it is the only 
line in the British Isles constructed on the mono-rail 
system. The permanent way consists of a single 
elevated rail supported on trestles ; the equilibrium of 
the rolling stock is maintained by its being built to hang 
down on each side, like panniers on a horse's back. 
The line is about 10 miles in length, and pays a good 
dividend to the shareholders. 
Railway construction has now been pushed far into 



TOPOGRAPHY 29 

the western wilds, and many of the more remote places, 
such as Lehinch, Kilkee, Dingle, Valencia, Kenmare, 
and Skull are connected with the main systems. Some 
of these lines are broad gauge (i.e. 5 ft. 3 in.) and others 
narrow gauge (3 ft.), and most of them pass through 
wild and beautiful scenery. 

There are practically no canals in Munster. The 
large and deep estuaries of some of the rivers which 
represent the seaward continuation of the present 
river valleys, now drowned by a sinking of the land 
provide natural waterways, some of which are much 
used ; for instance, the noble estuary of the Shannon, 
extending for over 50 miles from Loop Head to 
Limerick, and the harbours of Cork and Waterford. 
The tidal part of the Suir is used, giving a sea connection 
with Carrick-on-Suir ; but the only artificial waterway 
in the province of any importance is that by which the 
Shannon has been made navigable in its steep descent 
from Lough Derg to the sea, where, after an almost 
level course, it falls 97 ft. in 18' miles. 

ROUND THE COAST 

Starting at the boundary of Clare and Galway, on 
Galway Bay, a low coast with deep indentations, after 
the manner of the limestone, leads to Ballyvaughan, 
a village situated in a sheltered bay, from which a 
steamer connection with. Galway is maintained a 
necessary accommodation, as the nearest railway 
station (Ardrahan) is 16 miles distant. Around Bally- 
vaughan and westward to the Atlantic, and filling the 
greater part of the barony of Burren, there rise the 
hills whose strange appearance catches the eye of the 
traveller at Galway or on the moors of southern Conne- 



30 MUNSTER 

mara. They are formed of bare limestone, rising 
terrace above terrace over many miles to a height of 
1000 ft. or more. A good road follows the coast 
westward along the shore, which towards Black Head 
becomes steep. Rounding the headland, which marks 
the entrance of Galway Bay, we see the Aran Islands, 
which are low shelves of the same limestone rock, 
and which give us a measure of the former extent of 
this formation. Though geologically a part of Clare, 
these islands belong politically to Galway, and are 
dealt with in the Connaught volume of the present 
series. 

Beyond Fisherstreet the limestone gives way to beds 
of shale and flagstones, and the coast rises into the finest 
range of cliffs to be found in Ireland. 

The grand rock-wall, known as the digs of Moher, 
extends for several miles along the coast, attaining an 
elevation of over 650 ft. On account of the tabular 
nature of the rock the top is flat, and one can safely 
approach the edge and look down the great perpen- 
dicular wall to where the Atlantic swell surges round 
its base. Several tall outlying pinnacles rising from 
the water enhance the effect. 

Beyond the Cliffs of Moher there is a sharp indentation 
of the coast, forming Liscannor Bay, in which stands 
the little watering-place of Lahinch. Thence a storm- 
swept rocky coast, with occasional sandy bays, trends 
south-westward for nearly 40 miles to Loop Head. 
Towards the south, where stands Kilkee, much fre- 
quented by summer visitors, dark cliffs of shale, 
fantastically carved by the sea, prevail. 

Between Loop Head and Kerry Head, which projects 
10 miles to the southward, the great estuary of the 



TOPOGRAPHY 31 

Shannon opens. From its mouth to Limerick, where 
the river ceases to be tidal, the distance is 54 miles. 
During the greater part of this distance the Shannon 
maintains a breadth of from i to 3 miles. In the 
lower part of the estuary the gravelly shores are 
diversified and picturesque, with many villages along 
the water's edge ; while further up the land on either 
side is lower, its banks become muddy, and great 
areas of marshy pasture fringe the river. Two-thirds 
way up on the northern shore the wide muddy estuary 
of the Fergus opens out, studded with islands. The 
Fergus itself is quite a small stream, but its estuary, 
which is a flooded limestone lowland, would do credit to 
a large river. As a result of the marshy nature of the 
lands bordering the Shannon in the upper part of the 
estuary, the towns and villages are no longer situated 
on its banks, but lie some miles back from the river till 
we come to Limerick, where the ground on either side 
is firm. 

For communication between Limerick and the many 
villages along the estuary, this fine waterway is availed 
of, and steamers run along its whole length. Half-way 
down its southern bank, Foynes is connected by rail 
with Limerick. Far down the northern shore a narrow- 
gauge line (the West Clare Railway) runs from Kilrush 
northward, and connects by a circuitous route with 
Ennis. 

Crossing the Shannon southward we enter the county 
of Kerry. Ballybunnion, which faces across to Loop 
Head, is the terminus of the mono-rail line that runs 
inland to Listowel. Kerry Head is a high promontory 
greatly exposed to the ocean. Thence a low indented 
coast leads past the deep-water pier at Fenit to Tralee, 



32 MUNSTER 

an important town at the head of the shallow Tralee 
Bay. 

Westward from Tralee stretches the most northern 
of the great mountain promontories which lend such 
grandeur to the scenery of Kerry and West Cork. The 
origin and meaning of these has been touched on already 
in the general description of the province, and is more 
fully explained in the section devoted to Geology. The 
Dingle promontory is joined to the main mass of the 
land by a low depression filled with limestone ; a 
rise of 100 ft. in the level of the sea would convert it 
into an island. The northern shore of the promontory 
is exceedingly varied, the leading features being the 
long Castlegregory peninsula, where low limestone 
reefs run far into the sea ; and the huge precipices 
where Brandon drops into the ocean. The Blasket 
Islands, off the end of the promontory, are high and 
rugged, and are tenanted by a very primitive community. 
The south shore includes two safe land-locked harbours 
at Ventry and Dingle: on the shores of the latter 
stands the town of Dingle, an important fashing 
centre. 

The upper end of Dingle Bay, which separates this 
from the next mountain promontory, is shallow, almost 
closed by sand-dunes, and much encumbered by sand- 
banks : it is known as Castlemaine Harbour. 

Next, repeating many of the features of the Dingle 
promontory, a wilderness of mountains and lakes, 
18 miles across and twice that in length, intervenes 
between Dingle Bay and Kenmare river. A line of 
railway runs down its northern shore through 
Caherciveen to Valencia Harbour. Valencia Island, 
which lies close inshore, is well known as the terminus 



TOPOGRAPHY 



33 



of several of the transatlantic telegraph cables. From 
Valencia a beautifully wild coast continues to the 
entrance of the Kenmare river, which is not a river at 
all, but a long, deep, tapering sea-inlet running in 
through the mountains for about 27 miles. The town 
of Sneem, and Parknasilla with its large hotel, stand on 
its northern shore. At the head is Kenmare, a busy 




Valencia Harbour, Co. Kerry 

market town, and the terminus of a branch railway 
from the main line to Killarney. 

A third great mountain promontory now intervenes 
between Kenmare river and Bantry Bay, filled with 
high hills, and presenting a magnificent coast-line. 
It terminates in Dursey Island. Half-way down its 
northern shore we pass from Kerry into Cork. On 
its southern shore, in Bantry Bay, sheltered behind 
Bere Island, is Bere Haven, an important naval base. 
m C 



34 MUNSTER 

At the head of Bantry Bay is Glengarriff, one of the 
loveliest spots in Ireland, with wooded islands studding 
the calm, deep water. The south shore of Bantry Bay 
runs far out as a narrow mountainous promontory," 
with the deep, narrow inlet of Dunmanus Bay on its 




Cork Harbour diagrammatic 

Dotted areas = limestone troughs; shaded areas *= sandstone ridges 

other side. Beyond that the land runs out again to 
Mizen Head, the most southern point of the Irish main- 
land. Thence an exceedingly broken coast runs east- 
ward past Cape Clear (on Clear Island) away to Cork 
Harbour. Bold headlands alternate with sheltered 
inlets with little fishing towns nestling on their banks 
The most conspicuous of the projections of the coast 



TOPOGRAPHY 



35 



are Toe Head, Galley Head, Seven Heads, and the Old 
Head of Kinsale. The most important port is Kinsale, 
which has a large fishing industry. It lies near the 
mouth of the Bandon river, and was formerly a forti- 
fied harbour of importance : but the increased size of 




Cork Harbour actual 

modern ships has led to a transfer of much of its trade 
to Cork and Queenstown (Cobh). 

Cork Harbour, which is now reached, has already been 
described as to its mode of origin on p. 8, and is further 
referred to on p. 46. The main harbour, inside the 
mile-wide entrance, is a considerable expanse of water, 
with a deep channel through it. Queenstown (Cobh) 
is boldly situated facing the entrance. Two channels cut 



36 MUNSTER 

through the ridge in which it stands, the .left-hand one 
running up towards Midleton, the deeper right-hand one 
continuing past Passage to a second expansion known as 
Lough Mahon, which has muddy arms spreading far to 
east and west. Thence ships pass in a north-westerly 
direction up the narrow River Lee to Cork. Cork 
Harbour and Queenstown (Cobh) derive much of their 
importance from being a port of call for American 
mail steamers. But the huge increase in size of modern 
liners is beginning to tell against even this spacious 
port, which is now considered by some captains as not 
safe for the handling of their gigantic ships. 

From Cork Harbour a less broken and less precipitous 
coast runs on E.N.E. past Ballycotton Bay to the old 
town of Youghal, situated at the mouth of the River 
Blackwater. Just inside its mouth the estuary expands, 
forming a safe harbour, and Youghal stands picturesquely 
on the steep western bank. The Blackwater is tidal and 
forms a useful waterway as far as Cappoquin, 15 miles to 
the northward. 

In crossing the Blackwater we pass from Co. Cork 
into Co. Waterford, which possesses a varied coast-line. 
A bold shore runs from Youghal to Dungarvan Harbour, 
a rather large shallow bay with its upper part almost 
cut off by a straight spit of sand which extends from the 
southern shore nearly to the town of Dungarvan on the 
opposite side. Eastward, a stretch of coast, boldly pre- 
cipitous in places, brings us to Tramore Bay, broad 
and sandy, with the watering-place of Tramore at its 
western end.. As at Dungarvan, the inner part of the 
bay is almost cut off by a long sand-spit, in this case 
much broader and more mature. 
A few miles further on we reach the broad entrance 



TOPOGRAPHY 37 

of Waterford Haven. The River Barrow, coming 
from the north, already joined by the Nore, meets the 
River Suir, coming from the west, at a point 10 miles 
from the sea, and the combined streams flow southward 
through a wide, deep estuary into the Atlantic. The 
important port and railway centre of Waterford stands 
on the south bank of the Suir, about 6 miles above 
its junction with the Barrow. The Suir is tidal as far 
as Carrick-on-Suir, and is used as a waterway ; and the 
Barrow is tidal as far as St Mullins, in Co. Carlow, whence 
the river is canalised for a great part of its length, and 
eventually joins the main line of the Grand Canal some 
20 miles from Dublin. 

Waterford Haven divides Munster from Leinster, 
so our coastal survey terminates here. 

The interesting Aran Islands, lying in Galway Bay 
between Clare and Connemara, belong politically to 
Galway, and are referred to in the Connaught volume 
of this series. South of them, no island of importance 
is met with till we reach the Blaskets, which form 
the seaward prolongation of the mountainous Dingle 
promontory, and are themselves almost mountains in 
height. The Great Blasket, much the largest of the 
group and the only one which is inhabited, is a 
narrow ridge like a knife-edge, 4 miles long and nearly 
1000 ft. high. At its eastern extremity, where a little 
shelter is available, a colony of houses clings to the 
steep slope, surrounded by a patch of cultivation. 
On the most westerly of the group, the Tearaght, a light- 
house stands. Some 20 miles to the southward, off 
Bolus Head, two lovely pinnacled rocks, the Skelligs, 
rise many hundreds of feet into the air. Another out- 
lying rock familiar to those who go down to the sea in 



3 8 MUNSTER 

ships is the Fastnet, lying off Cape Clear. Inshore are 
many larger islands, mostly wild and cliff-bound, though 
less romantic than the distant lighthouse-guarded rocks 
just mentioned. Valencia Island, Bere Island, and Clear 
Island are the most important. On the East Cork and 
Waterford coasts islands are very few and small. 

COUNTIES AND TOWNS 

Six counties are included within the province ; several 
of these are of exceptional size, so that Munster has an 
area of 9536 square miles an area larger than that of 
Leinster with its twelve counties, or Ulster with its 
nine. 

Area in Square Miles. Population. 

Kerry . . . 1,853 iSQ^Q 1 

Cork .... 2,890 392,104 

Waterford ... 721 83,966 

Tipperary . . . 1,660 152,433 

Limerick . . . 1,064 143,069 

Clare .... 1,348 104,232 



T tal ' ' 

Of these, Tipperary alone lies entirely inland. Limerick 
along the greater part of its northern edge borders the 
broad Shannon estuary ; the remaining four counties 
present an extended and much indented front to the 
ocean. 

Co. Kerry 

The wildest and most diversified county in Ireland, 
on account of its long, fiord-like sea-inlets, its high 
mountain ranges, and its beautiful lakes and woods. 



TOPOGRAPHY 39 

The area from Killarney north to the Shannon is alone 
rather dull, as the high ribs of sandstone and slate which 
produce the bold features of the rest of the county are 
here replaced by softer shales, 'which weather into 
low, bog-smothered hills. The rivers of Kerry are short 
and rapid, and among the mountains small lakes and 
tarns are numerous. 

Tralee (10,300), the county town, is situated at the 
shallow head of a bay far to the westward. The small 
stream on which it stands has been widened and deepened 
to allow *of the passage of coasting craft to the town, 
but larger vessels berth at Fenit, a few miles westward. 
Killorglin (7443) is an important marketing centre. 
Dingle (1884), the most westerly town in Europe, lies 
in a sheltered bay near the extremity of the mountain- 
ous Dingle Peninsula. Killarney (5976) is inland, near 
the beautiful lakes of the same name, with wild moun- 
tains to the west and south and low, boggy uplands 
to the north. Kenmare (1034) is beautifully situated 
at the head of the noble sea-inlet known as Kenmare 
river : steamers berth a short distance below the town. 
Castleisland (1333) and Listowel (3409) lie in the less 
picturesque country to the north. 

The famous Lakes of Killarney lie at the eastern 
end of Macgillicuddy's Reeks, the loftiest mountain 
range in Ireland. They consist of a tolerably large 
sheet of water, the Lower Lake or Lough Leane, the 
small and scarcely distinct Muckross Lake, and another 
small and very irregular sheet of water, the Upper 
Lake; the last lies among high hills, and is connected 
with the others by a broad slow stream, the Long 
Reach. Different agencies have been at work in the 
production of these lakes. The Lower Lake and 



40 MUNSTER > 

Muckross Lake lie on the limestone where it abuts on 
the older non-soluble slates which form the Reeks 




just as the Corrib-Mask-Conn chain of lakes lies on the 
edge of the Central Plain where it rests against the old 
rocks of Connemara and West Mayo. The eastern 




Tore Waterfall, Killarney 



42 MUNSTER* 

shores of the Lower Lake, where the limestone prevails, 
are low and deeply indented, while the western shore, 
formed of slates, is steep and straight. The Lower 
Lake owes its origin chiefly to solution, the limestone 
having been dissolved in the irregular manner character- 
istic of such action. The Upper Lake is quite different 
in character, with shores formed of smoother and 
rounder ribs of rock which plunge into deep water. 
Its basin is the result of the scooping action of land 
ice during the Glacial Period. The presence of the 
towering summits of the Reeks immediately to the west 
produces much shelter from wind, and also a heavy 
rainfall ; the position of Killarney relative to the 
Atlantic, which surrounds Kerry on three sides, tends 
to remarkable mildness of climate. Hence we find in 
this area beautiful woods which harbour plants and 
animals belonging to regions far southward to Spain 
and the Mediterranean ; and hence also we find there a 
wonderful luxuriance of ferns and mosses, and other 
plants which love continual moisture. 

Co. Cork 

The largest county in Ireland, and of very diversified 
surface. In the east and north are expanses of typical 
Central Plain country gently undulating limestone 
pastures. These are interrupted by east-and-west 
ridges of sandstones and slates, with picturesque river 
valleys between. As we pass westward these ridges 
increase in height and width, till in Western Cork they 
occupy the whole surface, producing wild and beautiful 
mountain scenery which continues and develops further 
in Kerry. The coast-line, as in Kerry, is exceedingly 
broken, with long and deep sea-inlets in the west. 




J 



44 MUNSTER 

Cork (76,673), the capital of the province, lies among 
cultivated hills where the east-and-west valley of the 
Lee dips below sea-level. It is a busy port and railway 
centre. The railway from Dublin, dropping steeply 
into the valley (see p. 26), reaches the station through a 




Grand Parade, Cork 

long tunnel, and runs on to Queenstown (Cobh) and 
Youghal. Further west, the Cork, Bandon, and South 
Coast Railway has its terminus : it serves a large area, 
penetrating to .the Kerry border. A loop line now con- 
nects these two systems. A shorter line runs to Macroom. 
The port accommodates steamers of considerable ton- 
nage, but the largest boats lie in the open water of Cork 
Harbour, some miles down. The city had its origin 
as a fortified post of the Danes on a small island in the 



46 MUNSTER 

Lee ; following on the ecclesiastical settlement founded 
there by St Fin Barre in the seventh century. It has 
spread far beyond these narrow confines, and in some 
parts has climbed up the steep hills that rise over the 
river, so that the houses rise tier above tier. The 
appearance of the principal street is bright and busy, 
and many of the public buildings are good. 

Cork Harbour is an extremely irregular arm of 
the sea with a narrow entrance, 12 miles in length 
from Cork city to the open sea. It represents the 
sunken continuation of the Lee valley, and really con- 
sists of two drowned limestone troughs lying between 
three east-and-west ridges of slate, through which 
north-and-south passages have been cut by rivers. 
The first of these ridges rises along the northern edge 
of the area, by Cork and Midleton ; the second across 
the centre, forming Great Island, on which stands the 
important port of Queenstown (Cobh) (8209) '> an ^ 
the third across the mouth, where the twin forts are 
perched high above the sea. Its structure is illustrated 
on pp. 34, 35. Youghal (5648) is a fishing port and 
summer resort at the mouth of the Blackwater, in the 
extreme east. Kinsale (4020), Clonakilty (2961), Skib- 
bereen (3021), and Bantry (3159) lie on the western 
coast. Inland, Dunmanway (1619) and Bandon (3122) 
are on the Bandon river, and Macroom (2717) on the 
Lee. Along the picturesque valley of the Blackwater 
are Kanturk (1518), Mallow (4452) (an important 
railway junction) and Fermoy (6863). Northward, 
in the more level limestone country, are Buttevant 
(1754) and Charleville (1925). Mitchelstown (2268) 
is in the north-east, at the southern base of the Galtee 
mountains. 



48 MUNSTER 

Co. Waterford 

A fertile and picturesque area. The River Suir 
forms much of the northern boundary, and the Black- 
water traverses the eastern part of the county. Much 
of the centre and east is occupied by the lofty ridges 
of the Comeragh (2597 ft.) and Knockmealdown 
(2609 ft.) mountains. The coast-line is extensive, and 
often cliff-bound. On the eastern edge, the spacious 
inlet of Waterford Haven forms the estuary of the Suir, 
Barrow, and Nore. The western limit of the coast is 
the smaller inlet of Youghal Harbour, through which 
the Blackwater reaches the ocean. 

Waterford (27,464) is one of the foremost cities and 
ports in the southern half of Ireland. It stands on the 
southern bank of the Suir, 6 miles above the point 
where that stream joins the Barrow and 17 miles 
from the open sea. It has a considerable export trade, 
and is a railway centre of increasing importance. Part 
of the town, including the railway station, lies on the 
north or Kilkenny side of the river, across which a new 
ferro-concrete bridge has recently replaced the old 
wooden toll bridge. Portlaw (947) stands near the 
Suir ; Dungarvan (4977) is at the head of the shallow 
Dungarvan Harbour ; Lismore (1474) and Cappoquin 
(1069) are beautifully situated on the Blackwater. 
Tramore (1644), on the open sea 7 miles south of 
Waterford, is a much-frequented watering-place. 

Co. Tipperary 

A very large county, lying entirely inland, and much 
diversified by groups of mountains the Silvermines 
and Devil's Bit groups in the north, the loftier Galtees 
(3016 ft.) and Knockmealdowns (2609 ft.), and the 




1 

I 

o 






50 MUNSTER 

fine, isolated Slievenaman (2564 ft.) 3 in the south. Else- 
where the surface is of the type characteristic of the 
Central Plain slightly undulating limestone country, 
mostly in permanent pasture. The " Golden Vale of 
Tipperary," famed for its fertility, stretches from 




The Old Quay, Clonmel, Co. Tipperary 

Fethard westward by Cashel and Tipperary town to 
Kilmallock. Except for Lough Derg on the Shannon, 
which flows along the north-western edge of the county' 
lakes are almost absent. The county is drained by 
tributaries of the Shannon in the north and by the Suir 
in the centre and south. 

Clonmel (10,209), tne chief town, is beautifully situated 
on the Suir. Lower down the same river is Carrick- 
on-Suir (5235), and further up are Caher (1930) and 



TOPOGRAPHY 51 

Thurles (4549). Cashel (2813), famous for its ecclesi- 
astical ruins, Tipperary (6645), and Fethard (1473) 
also lie towards the centre ; Nenagh (4776), Roscrea 
2182), and Templemore (1791) in the north. 

Co. Limerick 

The whole northern boundary of Co. Limerick is 
formed by the Shannon, mostly by its broad, lake-like 
estuary " The spacious Shenan spreading like a sea," 
as Spenser describes it. The greater part of the area, 
particularly the north, is low, with extensive limestone 
pasture-lands. Round the other three sides west, south, 
and north the county is fringed with hills, which attain 
their greatest elevation in the south-east, where the 
boundary passes over the summit of Galtymore (3015 ft.). 
As a result of this grouping of the higher grounds, the 
drainage of the county is all northward across the plain 
to the Shannon. 

Limerick (38,518), a very ancient city, stands on the 
Shannon at the point where the river becomes tidal, 
on the site of an important ford ; the original Luimneach 
or Limnagh stood on King's Island, guarding the ford, 
and itself safe from sudden attack. In the eighteenth 
century, before the construction of railways diverted 
the lines of traffic, this was a very busy town and port ; 
but, like many of the western towns, 

" Limerick prodigious, 
That stands with, quays and bridges, 
And the ships up to the windys 
Of the Shannon shore," 

has now somewhat declined in relative importance; 
but it is still a busy place well supplied with railways, 
and the distributing centre for a very large district. 



52 MUNSTER 

There is a steamer service down the Shannon to its 
mouth. The other towns within the county are. much 
smaller : Rathkeale (1705) and Newcastle (2585), both 
lying towards the west, are the most important. 

Co. Glare 

For nearly three-quarters of its periphery Clare is 
bordered by water by the Atlantic along its extended 
western side, and by the Shannon and its great estuary 
on the east and south. The Atlantic coast is bare and 
mostly cliff-bound, with no shelter for ships between 
Galway Bay and the Shannon. In the north, the 
strange, bare limestone hills of Burren, already described 
(p. 18), overlook the ocean ; and these naked lime- 
stones continue into the centre of the county, where 
there are many low-lying lakes. Coal-measures, forming 
bleak, treeless hills, cover much of the west ; the centre 
is a low-lying plain of limestone ; the east is fertile, 
and pleasantly diversified with woods and lakes, valleys 
and hills the last rising to 1746 ft. in Slieve Ber- 
nagh, where the county fronts Lough Derg. The Aran 
Islands, lying across the entrance of Galway Bay, belong 
geologically to Clare, being shelves of limestone rock 
forming a continuation of the limestone beds of Burren ; 
but politically they belong to Co. Galway, and are dealt 
with in the Connaught volume of this series. 

Ennis, the assize town (5472), stands on the low ground 
in the centre of the county, on the River Fergus, above 
the head of its broad, shallow, island-studded estuary. 
Kilrush (3666) is on the Shannon estuary near its mouth ; 
a few miles to the west, Kilkee (1688), a favourite seaside 
resort, faces the open Atlantic. Killaloe (821) is beauti- 
fully placed on the Shannon at the foot of Lough Derg, 



GEOLOGY 53 

where the river plunges through the interesting gorge 
referred to on p. 19. It was an important ecclesiastical 
centre in old days. Ennistymon (1204) and Miltown 
Malbay (995) are close to the west coast ; Lisdoonvarna 
(249), towards the north, has mineral springs, and is 
a well-known health resort. 



GEOLOGY 

THE rock formations which are met with in Munster 
belong to the Palaeozoic Group. They comprise the 
following systems, which are arranged in age order, 
the oldest being below : 

Carboniferous. 

Old Red Sandstone. 

Silurian. 

Ordovician. 

In the earliest or Ordovician period a sea with islands 
scattered over it occupied the British area. Near the 
shores sands and muds accumulated to form sandstones 
and shales. In the clearer waters shell-fish of obsolete 
types abounded, and from their dead shells were formed 
bands of limestones. Corals, too, were present in this 
sea, which goes to prove that our islands were then bathed 
by warmer waters than those which surround them 
to-day. 

Great volcanic activity prevailed at this time. In 
Wales and Cumberland, in counties Dublin and Kildare 
volcanoes existed. In Waterford we have a grand 
series of volcanic rocks which burst their way through 
the sea-floor and mingled their lavas and ashes with 



54 MUNSTER 

the sands and muds, causing destruction among the 
shell-fish and coral polyps. Slates of Ordovician age 
are found in the vicinity of Waterford. 

The Silurian period was a more peaceful time here 
and in the British area generally, but in the Dingle 
peninsula the final struggles of these plutonic forces 
were enacted. At Clogher Head, and along the coast 
north and south, the Atlantic has laid bare old lavas 
and ashes that were poured out upon the bottom of 
the sea. Now and again came paroxysmic eruptions 
sufficient to blot out of existence the abundant animal 
life of those waters, but it soon returned, and so we find 
sediments again forming on top of an old lava flow. In 
addition to this district already mentioned, Silurian rocks 
are also found on the plateau between the Commeragh 
mountains and Portlaw, in the district east of Slieve- 
namann and in the region west of the Galtee moun- 
tains. The highlands west and south of the Devil's 
Bit reveal large areas of Silurian rocks, and we find 
them abundantly displayed in the Arra and Silvermine 
mountains 'in Tipperary and also in the Slieve Bernagh 
and Slieve Aughty mountains west of the Shannon. 
In all cases their exposure is due to the removal by 
denudation of the Old Red Sandstone rocks which rested 
upon them. 

With the beginning of Old Red Sandstone times great 
crustal movements took place- in N.W. Europe, and folds 
were developed whose axes ran in a north-easterly 
direction. The sea was thus excluded from the Irish 
area, and from Britain north of the Bristol Channel. 
Desert conditions appear to have prevailed on this con- 
tinental land. Mountains were buried beneath their own 
detritus, and sands accumulated on desert plains and in 



GEOLOGY 55 

delta, lake or estuary. Red oxide of iron is the character- 
istic cementing material of most of these accumulations. 
In the upper division of the Old Red Sandstone rocks 
are yellow sandstones. These in the vicinity of Cork 
and at Ballyhale, near Waterford, yield plant remains 
possessing a fern-like foliage which were washed down 
and embedded in the fine-grained sands. 

The mountains and hills of the south of Ireland are 
for the most part carved out of Old Red Sandstone 
rocks. In Co. Cork they rise towards the west, until 
in the moorland on the confines of Kerry west of Gougane- 
barra they attain a height of over 1500 ft. Farther west 
in Kerry are moorlands still higher. The finest groups, 
however, of these Old Red Sandstone mountains lie 
in the region of the Macgillicuddy's Reeks, and here Carn 
Tual rises to 3414 ft., the loftiest point in the island. 

Passing towards the east are the Mangerton range, 
the Paps, Boggeragh and Nagles mountains, all carved 
out of this red rock. North of Lismore are the Knock- 
mealdowns with one dominating peak, whilst the Com- 
er aghs form an Old Red Sandstone plateau with a 
steep escarpment on the eastern side, indented at 
intervals by river valleys, at the heads of which are 
often found basin-shaped hollows or cirques. North 
of the Knockmealdowns are the Galtees. Here the 
weathering of the horizontally-bedded sandstones has 
formed the flat-topped Galteemore. Slievenamuck, 
north of this, leads on to another exposure of these 
rocks around the Silurian high land, which occupies 
most of the north-west of Co. Tipperary. On the east 
of this highland is the Devil's Bit mountain, so called 
because of the notch from which the Old Red Sandstone 
has been entirely removed (possibly by a river in the 



56 MUNSTER 

latter part of the glacial period), thus making the hill 
to the south an outlier of the main sandstone mass to 
the north. The highest point in the Silvermines is 
composed of Old Red Sandstone; and Keeper Hill is 
capped by an outlier of this rock. It also occurs in the 
Arra mountains on the east of the Shannon and in the 
Slieve Bernagh range in Clare. Farther north a large 
development of this formation is found in the Slieve 
Aughty range. In every case the appearance of Old 
Red Sandstone rocks is due to the weathering of the 
Carboniferous rocks by which they were originally 
covered throughout the whole area. 

Volcanic rocks of this period consisting of lavas and 
ashes are met with at Loo Bridge and south of Lough 
Guitane in Kerry. A little to the south of Limerick 
is Knockfeerina Hill, which was an old volcanic vent 
in the latter part of this period. 

The Carboniferous Period was heralded in by a gradual 
sinking of the land surface. The depression probably 
set in from the south, but finally the sea extended until 
practically the whole of the country was covered. An 
old shore line may have existed somewhere among the 
highlands of Donegal and Mayo, and part of the Leinster 
chain, the granite of which by this time had been 
largely denuded of its shaly covering, remained as land 
for a time, for pebbles of granite are found in the 
limestone near Dublin. 

This sea stretched eastwards through England into 
the heart of Europe. In it oozes were formed, partly 
from remains of animals like sea-lilies, which were in- 
vested with a skeleton composed of calcareous plates. 
Shell-fish, too, were numerous, and in the vicinity of the 
shores or upon shoals, corals multiplied and added their 



GEOLOGY 57 

share in the formation of the massive limestones which 
we find so widely developed throughout the country. 

After a lapse of time the mouths of the rivers 
which entered this sea became silted up; large deltas 
of sand were formed which stretched out into it 
as that of the Mississippi does now into the Gulf of 
Mexico. 

In course of time forests grew upon the newly-formed 
land. The vegetation in these was composed of many 
strange types. Club mosses, represented to-day by 
lowly plants found in bogs, grew into tall trees. 
Likewise did the calamites, which grow in swampy 
places and were somewhat like our horse-tails. Tree 
ferns and cycads, reminding us of tropical vegeta- 
tion, were abundant in the lowlands, while pines clothed 
the sides of the mountains. These forests flourished 
and decayed, and, as the ground upon which they grew 
sank beneath the sea, were covered by sand and 
clay. Other deltas were afterwards formed on the 
same spot and forests again occupied them, to be 
buried in their turn by the next depression. Thus 
many coal seams separated by beds of sandstones 
or shale were formed in succession at the same place. 
To the whole series of these rocks the general name of 
Coal Measures has been given. It is difficult to find at 
the present time anything to which we may compare 
these old forests, though perhaps in the mangrove 
swamps of Florida we may get a dim idea of the 
conditions prevailing in the latter part of the Car- 
boniferous period. 

Around Limerick and extending south-eastwards for 
some 20 miles is a large area in which is displayed 
abundant evidence of volcanic activity during Car- 



58 MUNSTER 

boniferous times. The lavas and ashes have resisted the 
action of the weather better than the limestone which 
envelops them, and thus they form a series of low hills 
which are rendered conspicuous because of the flatness of 
the surrounding country. The old castle of Carrigogunnel, 
5 miles west of the city, stands on one of these igneous 
masses. Caherconlish is another large exposure, whilst 
about Pallas Grean and Herbertstown they are developed 
in an almost continuous zone. 

The Carboniferous rocks may be divided into four 
groups. Given in order, the earliest being below, they 
are : 

Coal Measures. 

Millstone Grit. 

Limestone. 

Shale. 

The Shale is found commonly at the sides of the valleys 
in the south of Ireland, and generally as a thin band 
surrounding the exposures of Old Red Sandstone. In 
the south of Cork is a large area of Carboniferous Slate 
which represents a much longer epoch than that in which 
the Lower Limestone Shale of the rest of the country 
was formed. With the slates are associated the " Coom- 
hola Grits " which are found well developed on Shehy 
mountain north-west of Dunmanway. 

Limestone occupies the valleys from that of Cloyne 
northwards. Tongues of this rock extending from the 
Central Plain envelop the Galtees, one pushing through 
by Charleville to Mallow, the other reaching round 
by Caher and Mitchelstown. Six miles east of this latter 
place are the well-known caves. These were formed 
by the solution of the limestone, and in them are many 



GEOLOGY 59 

beautiful columns made by the coalescence of stalactites 
suspended from the roof with stalagmites formed on 
the floor below. 

("> In the northern part of Clare the magnificent terraced 
mountains of the Burren are carved out of horizontally 




Stalactite- Stalagmite Pillar in Cave six miles E. of 
Mitchelstown, Co. Cork 

bedded limestone. This rock is also exposed in a band 
some 12 miles wide running south through and to the 
east of Ennis and reaching the Shannon. 

South and west of the limestone area are large ex- 
posures of Carboniferous sandstone. Perhaps the most 
striking of these is to be found in the long range of the 
cliffs of Moher. These vertical cliffs of horizontally 



6o MUNSTER 

bedded sandstone are perhaps the finest in the British 
Isles. At the northern end, near O'Brien's Tower, one 
may lie on the edge of the cliff and drop a pebble 
into the Atlantic 600 ft. below. At Kilkee we have also 
magnificent cliff scenery, and here some of the surfaces 
of the sandstones exhibit excellent examples of ripple 
marks. 




Limestone Terraces, Co. Clare 

Coal Measures strata are found in North-west Cork, 
North-east Kerry, and South Clare, whilst in Tipperary 
there is a small exposure of them about 10 miles south- 
east of Thurles. These areas are surrounded by rocks 
of the Millstone Grit series. 

After the Coal Measures were formed a great uplift 
accompanied by folding took place in the north-west 
of Europe. Our area was greatly affected by this, 



GEOLOGY 



61 



and the present trend of river valley and upland ridge 
so conspicuous in the physical features of Munster are 
due to the unequal denudation of the hard rocks exposed 
in the crests of the folds and the weaker ones which still 
remain in the troughs. 

A long extended period of denudation now followed, 




The Cliffs at Kilkee, Co. Clare 

and the Coal Measures that occupied large areas were 
eventually removed from most of the province. 

Very little is known of the subsequent history between 
this post-Carboniferous upheaval and Glacial times. 
It is probable, however, that the sea did cover the area 
during a part of this wide interval and that newer 
deposits than the Carboniferous rocks were laid down, 
but of these not the slightest trace remains, All we 



62 MUNSTER 

know is, thai before the advent of Glacial times the main 
features of the- topography were much as they are 
to-day. 

One of the most noticeable features of the river 
system of Cork is the sharp right-angled bend which 
occurs in each of the three rivers Blackwater, Lee, 
and Bandon in the lower portion of their courses, and 
the steep-sided gorges through which they have each 
cut a passage to the sea. 

The Blackwater, after bending south at Cappoquin, 
enters a deep ravine, the sides of which rise to between 
300 and 400 ft. Now if a dam 80 ft. high were formed 
across the river at Dromana, it would, after forming a 
lake about Cappoquin, make its way to the sea at 
Dungarvan. Similarly if the east and west passages 
of the Lee were blocked the river would go along by 
Midleton to Ballycottin Bay. The Bandon too, under 
similar circumstances, would find an outlet by the 
Owenboy valley and enter the sea at Cork Harbour by 
Carrigaline. 

It is evident that the carving of these gorges was begun 
before the valleys behind had been reduced to anything 
like their present levels. 

Let us now consider events in the light of a theory 
proposed by Professor Jukes as far back as 1862. 

After the formation of the Coal Measures the whole 
of Munster was affected by forces which elevated the 
crust and produced folds in the rocks. The new land 
thus formed was subjected to denudation by the sea, and 
most of cfur coal supplies were removed, leaving a gently 
sloping surface of limestone through which here and there 
the Old Red Sandstone rocks made their appearance 



GEOLOGY 63 

in the crests of the folds or anticlines where the limestone 
had been eaten through. Eventually after another uplift 
a series of rivers flowed down this sloping surface towards 
the south. The Brinny brook continued its way along the 
lower course of the Bandon, the stream of the Glanmire 
valley came down by Passage West, and the Owenacurra 
flowed past Midleton and by Passage East and effected 
a junction with it somewhere in Cork Harbour, the con- 
fluent waters going through the harbour entrance to the 
sea, whilst in the case of the Blackwater the youthful 
ravines of Dromana and Carnglass formed the channel 
for a river flowing from the Knockmealdowns. 

Continued denudation in the course of time laid bare 
the sandstone all along the anticlines of the east and west 
folds, and since the sandstone was more resistant than 
the limestone which remained in the synclines, the east 
and west tributary valleys were carved out of the latter 
rock, which yielded so readily to solution by water con- 
taining carbonic acid gas. The western tributaries of 
the streams increased more rapidly than those flowing 
from the east, for the slope of the land was in their favour, 
the higher ground being in the west ; and thus it comes 
about that the original western tributaries now form 
the main portions of the present-day rivers. 

Near Killaloe the Shannon passes through a gorge, 
the banks of which run up to elevations of 1746 ft. 
on the western side and 1517 ft. on the eastern, whilst 
the bed of the river is only 108 ft. above sea level. It 
is quite certain that the limestone of the plain north of 
this was much higher than either the Slieve Bernagh 
or the Arra mountains when the Shannon began its 
life-work ; and that it had power to carve through the 
more resistant sandstone rocks as rapidly as the lowering 



64 MUNSTER 

of the limestone plain to the north was affected by 
denudation. 

The same reasoning can be applied to the Suir, which 
leaves the limestone plain and goes through a gorge 
with sides 250 ft. in height near the city of Waterford. 

THE GLACIAL PERIOD 

At the beginning of this period the sea stood at 
approximately the same level as now. The annual 
snowfall was greater than the heat of summer could 
melt, and hence an ice-sheet was formed. This ice-sheet 
appeared much earlier in the north than in the south. 
Gradually, however, invasions of ice from the great 
Central Plain and of Irish Sea ice took place, the former 
finding a way at first through the passes of the hills, 
but afterwards mounting and overtopping most of them, 
the latter occupying and riding over the country along the 
coasts of Waterford and Cork. The highlands of Kerry 
nursed their own glaciers and these were pushed out 
in all directions, and finally joined the northern and 
eastern sheets. 

In Cork the striations on the rocks run east-south-east, 
and these, taken in conjunction with other glacial data, 
indicate an ice movement in that direction. The sea to 
the south was probably occupied by ice, else we should 
expect to find that tongues of ice escaped through such 
openings as Cork Harbour, but of this there is no evidence. 

In Clare the main ice-stream seems to have come 
from Galway, for boulders of Galway granite are found 
in the boulder clay of many different localities in this 
county. 

On the shrinkage of the Irish Sea ice, the Cork ice- 
sheet advanced, and we find south of Youghal red boulder 



GEOLOGY 65 

clay overlying the marly marine deposit, showing that 
there were no intervening interglacial deposits in this 
district. 

The glaciation of the south was of much shorter 
duration than that of the country farther north. This 
is not to be wondered at, for Munster appears to have 




Roche moutonnee at Loo Bridge, Co. Kerry 

lain just inside the margin of the British ice-sheets, 
and in this connection it may be borne in mind that signs 
of glaciation are not found in the adjoining island 
farther south than Bristol and the Thames valley. 

The hills in south-east Cork thus emerged at an earlier 
period than did those of the west, and upon the newly 
bared surface a copious land drainage was soon estab- 
lished. Glaciers still occupied the valleys however, 
m E 



66 MUNSTER 

and it is to rivers that flowed along the sides of these 
glaciers that we owe the stratified gravels so common 
in the Lee valley and elsewhere. 

In some cases the earlier courses of the streams 
were blocked up either with ice or drift, and the diverted 
streams cut new channels which are now either dry 
or supplied by insignificant streams. 

The time immediately following the Glacial period 
was one of severe winters, when snows accumulated, 
giving rise to heavy floods in spring. Under these con- 
ditions the sharp V-shaped north and south transverse 
gorges were excavated, and the materials removed from 
them were spread out in the form of fans where these 
gorges open out on the broader eastward valleys. The 
main rivers, too, carried considerably more water than 
they do now, and thus they were able to bring down 
the gravels that are found in such quantity in the lower 
reaches of the valleys. 

As milder conditions came on the glaciers diminished 
in size and in length. They retreated up the valleys, 
but this retreat was interrupted repeatedly by periods 
of rest. These periods are marked by morainic mounds 
which stretch across the valleys from side to side. In 
some instances most of the materials of these moraines 
have been removed by the river and only scattered 
mounds indicate their former extension. A fine example 
of a moraine on a small scale is to be seen in the Gap 
of Dunloe, west of Killarney. Here the large lateral 
moraine of the east side of the Gap joins up with the 
terminal moraine lower down, thus forming a horse- 
shoe embankment in the valley. 

Moraines are found in most of the valleys in the 
Macgillicuddy Reeks district. About Killarney, and in 



GEOLOGY 67 

the valley east of this around Lough Guitane, are fine 
examples, while another fairly well preserved one 
occurs in the Sheen valley south of Kenmare. 

One of the most striking features of a recently 
glaciated country is the abundance of its lakes. These 
are formed in various ways. Sometimes they are 
excavated rock basins filled with water, as in Lough 
Auger in the Gap of Dunloe ; in other cases they occupy 
hollows between the surrounding mounds of drift, 
as in Cork Lough ; or, again, a moraine may block up a 
valley and a lake be formed behind. There are a very 
large number of moraine-dammed lakes among the 
Kerry hills, and the Lakes of Killarney themselves are 
banked on the north by morainic material. In the 
southern part of the Comeragh plateau are several lakes 
of quite a different type, the most noted of these being 
Lake Coumshingaun. Ascending one of the branches 
of the Clodiach river we mount a series of moraines with 
huge blocks of Old Red Sandstone scattered about upon 
them. Behind the highest and last of these is the 
lake itself, which is bounded on the farther side by a 
semi-circular wall of cliff rising sheer from the water's 
edge. This marks the spot where the remains of a 
glacier sheltered during the latter part of the glacial 
epoch. As milder conditions came on the ice melted and 
formed a lake. This was fed by small streams from the 
high land behind the cliff and eventually rose to the level 
of the lowest part of the moraine dam, over which 
it flowed and easily carved out a bed in the loosely 
compacted embankment. 

Many of these coom, corrie or cirque lakes are found in 
the mountainous parts of Kerry. Facing the sea, on the 
northern side of the Dingle peninsula are fine examples, 



68 MUNSTER 

whilst at the head of the Glenbeigh valley, near Cahersi- 
veen is a series of seven the finest in the British Isles. 

In Co. Cork are quite a number of instances of river 
diversion. The Bride stream that entered the Lee 
valley from the north by the Shandon Gap was blocked 
by a stratified gravel deposit. This was probably formed 
in a lake at a time when the Lee valley was occupied 
by a glacier. After the ice had disappeared this lake 
sought an outlet and formed the present ravine known 
as Goulding's Glen, at the side of the main obstruction. 
The river soon removed the gravels and cut deeply 
into the sandstone. Another striking instance occurs 
at Tattan's Gorse, about half-way between Watergrasshill 
and Midleton. The stream flowing from the north was 
blocked by ice or drift at Dooneen Bridge, and a new course 
with steep sides 70 ft. high was cut out of sandstone 
rock a little to the east, and through this the Leamlara 
stream still flows. At Riverstown, in the Glanmire 
valley, the Glashaboy stream has been diverted from 
its original course by a bank of glacial gravel, and a 
passage has been cut through the rock 60 ft. deep 
and 200 to 300 yards long. 

The stream that flows through the pass of Keimaneigh 
could not have cut that famous gorge. More probably 
it was rapidly cut out by flood waters consequent 
upon the shrinkage of the ice. 

Erratics are abundant, especially in the south-west of 
Munster. These are blocks, often of great size, that have 
been carried from their place of origin by ice. When 
they occupy precarious positions they are termed perched 
blocks. At Cloughlowrish Bridge, in Co. Waterford, is 
an erratic of Old Red Sandstone resting upon an igneous 
rock. Near Kenmare is another of sandstone resting 



GEOLOGY 



69 



upon a limestone surface. The limestone has been 
artificially cut away all round at a remote period, so 
that the large erratic now rests on a slender pedestal. 
On Knockbrack mountain are a large number of them, 
and about Glengariff and westwards towards Adrigole 
thev are perched in all kinds of positions. 




Perched Block, Co. Kerry 

At the end of the Mer de Glace, near Chamounix, are 
rocks which present a smooth and polished surface 
and on which striations are also observable. The 
smoothing has been effected by the sand which the ice 
contained in its base, and the striations are due to the 
chiselling action of fragments of rocks held as in a vice 
by the glacier as it moved forward. 



70 MUNSTER 

One of the surest forms of evidence concerning the 
motion of glaciers is to be found in such smoothed 
surfaces of rock upon which are striations more or less 
deeply incised. Some of these begin as fine lines and 
increase in thickness until they come to an abrupt 
termination. In this case the striation becomes coarser 
in the direction in which the glacier was moving. 

Sometimes two or more sets of striations are observ- 
able; in Cork and Kerry we have many examples of 
this. Thus at the head of the Slaheny valley is a rock 
surface with two distinct sets of striations and a third 
somewhat less distinctly marked. The chief glaciation 
has produced ridges and furrows running S. 33 E., 
while a later set of striations runs E. 10 S. These later 
striations are found on only one side of the smoothed 
ridges, and consequently we assume that the striated 
side of the ridge was that opposed to the motion of the 
latter glacier. 

While, as already stated, the general course of the 
glaciers in Cork was east-south-east, they nevertheless 
followed valleys which deviated from this direction. Thus 
a part of the glacier from the Roughty valley, east of 
Kilgarvan, went N.E. towards Bally vourney, while an- 
other part kept on down the valley of the Toon to 
Macroom. The striations show that meanders of the 
valleys were also followed fairly closely by the ice, 
or that a differential movement existed in different 
parts of the same ice mass. 

The gravels have been already referred to as being 
formed by floods consequent upon the breaking up of the 
ice-sheet. They are found at different levels. The higher 
ones were formed by the earlier floods at a time when 
the hill-tops were stripped of ice, the lower ones later on 



GEOLOGY 71 

when ice occupied only the lower parts of the valleys. 
Behind the village of Watergrasshill, at a height of 
600 ft., are representatives of these earlier flood gravels, 
while in the Lee valley, about Cork and also about 
Midleton, are later deposits. 

Eskers, or low winding ridges formed of water- worn 




Glaciated rock surface, Co. Cork 

and stratified material, are not developed in such fine 
proportions in Munster as in King's County, Westmeath, 
or Tyrone. A small one occurs at Dooheen Bridge, 
5 miles south-west of Limerick, and another at Kenmare, 
just below the Great Southern Railway Hotel. These 
seem to have been formed where sub-glacial streams 
heavily charged with sediment and flowing in ice tunnels 
reached the quiet waters of a lake or estuary. 



72 MUNSTER 

The gravels which were spread out on the bottom of 
the valleys by the floods during the time of recession 
of the ice have since been cut into by the rivers, and 
terraces have been formed marking the different succes- 
sive flood levels. Good examples of these are seen in 
the Lee valley at Inniscarra and Carrigrohane, six and 




Terraces at Inniscarra on the River Lee 

three miles respectively west of Cork. In these the 
highest terraces give approximately the level of the old 
gravel- covered plain. As the river deepened its bed new 
flood terraces were formed at successively lower levels. 

At many points along the southern coast-line from 
Carnsore Point to Baltimore portions of an old shore- 
line have been traced. Where well preserved, as at 
Myrtleville, a little west of the entrance to Cork Harbour, 



GEOLOGY 73 

it consists of a tidal platform rising from present mean- 
tide level on the outer edge to a few feet above high- 
tide mark on the landward side. Upon this we get, 
amongst other deposits, one of boulder clay. 

Now if we consider that the gorges of the Lee at 
Passage East and Passage West were formed by the 
cutting action of the river when the land stood at a higher 
level, we must admit, on the testimony of the raised 
beaches, that a pre-glacial subsidence admitted the sea 
to the lower parts of the rivers and formed those long 
inlets or rias, examples of which we have in Waterford 
and Cork Harbours and in the long inlets which form such 
striking features of the coast-line of Cork and Kerry. 
As this old beach corresponds with those on the opposite 
side of St George's Channel, it is fair to assume that 
Ireland was separated from England before the advent 
of the glacial period, though during a part of this period 
a land- connection may have been re-established. Be 
that as it may, we have at the present time the sea 
level very nearly restored to the old position which it 
occupied before the coming of the ice age. 

SOILS 

The loose ice-borne material or drift, from which is 
derived most of the soils of the cultivated lands, is 
throughout most of the province similar to the debris 
of the rocks upon which it rests, and thus there is little 
difference between the derived soils in the two cases. 
An exception occurs in the soils at the head of Bantry 
Bay. These are greatly enriched by the limestone 
boulder clay. A similar enrichment is found to follow 
the presence of this type of boulder clay in the vicinity 
of the Silurian hills of Tipperary, whilst the Vale of 



74 MUNSTER 

Aherlow and the Golden Vale of Limerick owe their 
wealth of soil to the large proportion of limestone 
and volcanic rocks in the mixed materials of the drifts 
in those places. 

In North Clare we have a large area of bare lime- 
stone in which meteoric agencies have carved out the 
magnificent natural terraces of the Burren. Drifts 
occur in the valleys and are largely made up of lime- 
stone detritus, with some pebbles and blocks of Galway 
granite. Further south limestone blocks are associated 
with sandstone and shale in the drift. , 

The drift covering about Listowel and Tralee Bay 
is made up largely of limestone debris, but in the 
centre of Kerry grits and shales are the principal 
constituents. 

In south-west Kerry moraines are common in the 
gaps of the mountains, and in the vicinity of Killarney 
the limestone is overspread with drift and moraines, 
which are alike formed of grits and shales from the Old 
Red Sandstone country to the south. 

MINES, MINERALS, AND QUARRIES 

In south-west Cork a number of veins of copper ore 
have been found. The ore is chiefly Copper Pyrites 
(CuFeS 2 ). In the past a large quantity of this ore 
has been taken out, more particularly in the district 
west of Berehaven. At Ross Island, Killarney, and at 
Ardtully, in the Kenmare valley, copper mining has been 
carried on. Other places extensively worked in the 
past are Knockmahon and Bunmahon, west of Amies- 
town, Co. Waterford. In Tipperary copper ore occurs 
at Lackamore. 

At Duneen Bay, near Clonakilty, there occurs a rich 



GEOLOGY 75 

vein of Barytes. This mineral is also found at Skull. 
In both places the ore is worked. 

Lead mines have been worked in the Silvermines 
district, near Nenagh, also at Tulla in Clare and 
at Rooska, near Bantry. Galena (PbS.) is the chief 
ore. 

Pyrolusite (MnO 2 ), has been obtained in the vicinity 
of Glandore, Co. Cork, and the zinc ore, Calamine, occurs 
in the Silvermines district, Co. Tipperary. 

Limestone is used very largely as a building stone 
all over the province. In the south it has been subj ected 
to great earth-pressures and has developed cleavage. 
This takes away from its value as a building stone. 
Nevertheless stones of large size suitable for columns 
have been quarried at Ballintemple, and these have been 
employed in the building of the Courthouse and Savings 
Bank in the city of Cork. As the stone weathers, the 
fossils, so difficult to determine in freshly fractured 
specimens, stand out in relief owing to their superior 
hardness, and this gives it a delicate veined appearance 
which adds greatly to the beauty of the stone. 

Red marble is found at Little Island, Fermoy, Midleton 
in Co. Cork, and Castleisland in Co. Kerry. The colour 
is due to the infiltration of iron oxide. Good examples 
of the use of Cork marbles in interior decoration can be 
seen in St Finbarre's Cathedral and in the entrance hall 
of the new Technical School, Cork ; and of Castleisland 
marble in the Honan Chapel, University College. Grey 
marble is found at Mitchelstown. 

Limestone is burnt in many places, and the lime 
obtained is used for building, whitewash, and agricul- 
tural purposes. The old style of kiln is being super- 
seded by one which has a larger " eye " or opening at 



76 MUNSTER 

the base, and this is directed so as to catch the prevailing 
S.W. winds, instead of facing the east as in the older 
types. The impurities in some of the limestones render 
them more effective for agricultural purposes than as 
a wash. Dolomitisation (the replacing of Calcium by 
Magnesium) has occurred in some of the limestones 
around Cork, and from this altered rock Magnesia was 
formerly made. It is now extracted from sea water 
at Little Island. 

Coal Measures occur in N.W. Cork, N.E. Kerry, 
W. Limerick, and S. Clare. The seams are anthracitic 
but thin, and are of little commercial importance. A 
more flourishing coal-field is that of Slieve Ardagh, in 
Tipperary. This is worked, and has a yearly output of 
eight thousand five hundred tons. 

Owing to the extensive use of limestone in building 
and the scarcity of good brick clays, the brick-making 
industry is of less importance in the south than in the 
north of Ireland. A stiff white clay occurs in places 
over the limestone drift. Brick clay also occurs along 
the River Fergus, and at Lis towel, Tralee, Newcastle 
West, Limerick, Nenagh, and near Thurles, also at 
Youghal, Monard, Belvelly, and Ballinphelic. At the 
last named place red tiles, chimney-pots, and other articles 
in earthenware were manufactured until quite recently. 
The products were conveyed to Ballinhassig station, 
4 miles distant, by trolleys running on an overhead 
cable. Potter's clay is found near Killenaule, Co. 
Tipperary, and at Youghal in addition to brick works is 
a small pottery industry. 

Some of the old slates formerly used in Cork were 
obtained in the county, and at present some quarries are 
being worked. At Killaloe and Portree, near Nenagh, 



GEOLOGY 77 

the output is much greater. The slate quarries near 
Carrick-on-Suir yield a small supply. 

In the absence of igneous rocks, which are poorly 
represented in Munster except in the vicinity of Limerick, 
limestone, sandstone, and slate are used as road metal. 
Of these limestone and slate are used in the valleys and 
sandstone on the higher ground. Partly on account of 
their situation roads made from the latter rock are 
better than those of the valleys. Bands of " Coomhola 
Grit " occur in the Carboniferous shale series, and 
these provide a better material than any of the 
others. 

Experiments on road metals have been conducted by 
the Engineering Department at University College, 
Cork. The instrument employed is a rattler or drum, 
into which a certain weight of broken stone of standard 
size as used on the roads is introduced, together with 
a number of small cubical blocks of iron. These are 
rotated for 50 minutes and the amount of debris, con- 
sisting of chippings and dust, determined. In these tests 
southern limestones come out badly, but some of the 
Coomhola sandstones give much better results, and are 
intermediate in quality between the limestones and 
well-known igneous road metals, such as Penmanmawr 
rock. One of the best of these grits is quarried at 
Killeady, near Kinsale. Paving setts are made in the 
Longstone quarries near Limerick, and these have 
superseded those imported from Wales and Arklow, 
which were formerly used in that city. Flags are 
quarried at Doonagoore and other places in the county 
of Clare. * 



78 MUNSTER 



BOTANY 

THE province of Minister is much diversified as to 
surface. As we pass southward out of the Central 
Plain the continuity of the limestone which prevails 
there is more and more broken up by high ridges run- 
ning east and west or north-east and south-west. The 
extensive folding which took place in post-Carboniferous 
times, and subsequent denudation, have laid bare the 
underlying Devonian and Silurian rocks, which now 
form the hill-ranges, while on the lower grounds the 
limestone still persists. We have thus the same broad 
contrast which we find in Connaught the grassy plain 
with a calcicole flora, and the heathery hills with a 
calcifuge vegetation. In Clare and North Kerry there 
are also large areas of Coal-measures resting on the 
limestone, and usually supplying a heavy lime-free soil. 
In the south-west, where great mountain-ribs, projecting 
far into the Atlantic, alternate with deep troughs in 
which the limestone still lingers, the mildness and damp- 
ness which characterise the Irish climate reach their 
maximum, and there is a remarkable fauna and 
flora, characterised by the occurrence of many species, 
chiefly plants, which find here their most northerly 
known station. And mixed incongruously with these 
we find, as elsewhere in Ireland, other species which 
are of high northern distribution. The interesting 
question as to the origin of these elements in the 
flora and fauna 'has been touched on in the "Ire- 
land" volume of this series, and need not be 
reviewed here. 



80 MUNSTER 

Of the interesting group of species referred to in the 
last paragraph the most conspicuous are certain flowering 
plants, namely : Arbutus Unedo, the Strawberry -Tree 
(found in the Killarney district, S.W. France, Pyrenees, 
Mediterranean), Saxifraga umbrosa and 5. Geum 
(S. to W. or N.W. Ireland, Pyrenean region), Pinguicula 
grandiftora (S.W. Ireland, Pyrenean region, Alps), 
Euphorbia hiberna (S. to N.W. Ireland, Devon, Pyrenean 
region), Sibthorpia europcea (Kerry, S.W. England, 
France, Spain, Portugal), Spiranthes Romanzoffiana 
(Cork, N. Ireland, Kamtschatka, northern N. America), 
Simethis bicolor (Kerry, Dorset, Spanish Peninsula 
and West Mediterranean), Sisyrinchium 'angustifolium 
(S.W. to N.W. Ireland, northern N. America), Eriocaulon 
septangular e (S.W. to N.W. Ireland, Skye, N. America). 
Nowhere else in Europe do we find such an interesting 
and puzzling mixture of southern and northern plants 
living together so far removed from their centre oi 
distribution. 

We may now consider in greater detail the flora of 
some selected areas within the province. 

Macgillicuddy's Reeks "" 

" The Reeks " (ricks) are the finest as well as the 
loftiest mountain range in Ireland. The highest point 
(Carrantuohill) reaches 3414 ft., and along the main ridge 
for several miles an elevation of over 3000 ft. is main- 
tained. Composed of massive slates and sandstones of 
Devonian age, the numerous lofty precipices are formed 
of hard rock, suitable for plant life and safe for the 
climber. A number of tarns lie among the hills, sur- 
rounded by magnificent cirques. As elsewhere in 
Ireland, the number of alpine plants which occur is 



BOTANY 



81 



limited, and is not in proportion to the large amount 
of suitable ground. The Highland type Phanerogams 




Strawberry Tree (Arbutus Unedo) at the Upper Lake 
of Killarney 

of the range are Draba incana, Sedum roseum, 
Saxifraga stellar is, Hieracium anglicum, Oxyria digyna, 
m F 



82 MUNSTER 

Salix herbacea, Carex rigida. They are accompanied on 
the high grounds by Armeria maritima and Cochlearia 
alpina. Silene maritima occurs lower down, far from 
the sea. The tarns yield Subularia aquatica, Elatine 
hexandra, Lobelia Dortmanna, Sparganium minimum, 
etc. Many of the interesting plants of the Kerry 
lowlands creep up the flanks of the hills. Saxifraga 
umbrosa is, as usual, found at all elevations. Lower 
down we get S. Geum, S. hirsuta, Carum verticillatum, 
Bartsia viscosa, Utricularia Bremii, Pinguicula grandi- 
flora, Euphorbia hiberna, 

The Killarney Lakes 

The town of Killarney, and the large Lower Lake, 
lie in an east-and-west limestone trough. Northward the 
ground rises gently into low, boggy, barren hills formed 
of Coal-measures, Southward the ground rises abruptly 
from the very shore of the lake into the beautiful and 
lofty mountains of Old Red Sandstone for which the 
place is famous. The Upper Lake, which is small and 
narrow, lies in a mountainous north-and-south valley 
which penetrates into the hills. There is a striking 
contrast of both scenery and flora the low limestones 
with their grass, tillage, and calcicole plants on the one 
hand, the high heathery hills on the other. The lime- 
stone lies bare, often fantastically carved by water, 
along the shores and islands of the Lower Lake. In 
this area, in the woods, on the shores, or in the water, 
we find : 

Subularia aquatica R. Frangula 

Elatine hexandra Rubia peregrina 

Rhamnus catharticus Galium boreale 



BOTANY 83 

G. sylvestre Monotropa Hypopithys 

Carum verticillatum Utricularia neglecta 

Lobelia Dortmanna Cephalanthera ensifolia 
Wahlenbergia hederacea Naias flexilis 

Arbutus Unedo Carex Boenninghausiana 

Microcala iiliformis Lastrea Thelypteris 

Bartsia viscosa Isoetes lacustris 

The Upper Lake and its neighbourhood, with its 
dense woods, and reefs and cliffs of Old Red Sandstone, 
harbours a calcifuge flora of very luxuriant growth, 
the mildness and dampness of the climate being well 
shown by the sheets of Filmy Ferns (Hymenophyllum 
tunbridgense and H. unilatemle) which clothe the rocks 
and tree-stems. These woods are the headquarters of 
the Arbutus, perhaps the most interesting member 
of the Killarney flora (but it grows also on the lime- 
stone islands of the Lower Lake, as shown by the pre- 
ceding list). It is accompanied here by Oak (Quercus), 
Birch (Betula), Holly (Ilex), Mountain Ash, Pyrus 
Aucuparia, etc. Most of the other interesting plants 
of the Upper Lake occur on rocks or on the lake 
shores : 

Subularia aquatica Euphorbia hiberna 

Elatine hexandra Juncus tenuis 

Saxifraga umbrosa Asplenium Adiantum- 
S. Geum nigrum, var. acutum 

Pinguicula grandiflora Pilularia globulifera 

Not far from the Killarney area the rare and hand- 
some Sea Pea (Lathyrus maritimus] has its only Irish 
station at Castlemaine Bay, 



84 MUNSTER 

Cork 

The most striking feature of the botany of the 
neighbourhood of Cork city is the number and profusion 
of plants which have escaped from cultivation and are 
now naturalised. Most of these are of South European 
distribution. They include Sedum album, Centmnthus 
ruber, Senecio squalidus and the hybrid 5. squalidusx 
vulgaris (all abundant on walls), Hypericum hircinum 
(Glanmire), Symphytum tuber osum (JBlackrock), Erinus 
alpinus (Douglas, Blackrock, etc.), Linaria viscida 
(Tivoli, etc.), Stratiotes aloides (Ballyphehane bog), 
Barbarea prt&cox, Diplotaxis muralis, and Mercurialis 
annua. Among the native plants, one of the most 
interesting is the Irish Spurge, Euphorbia hiberna, 
already referred to ; Geranium rotundifolium, Pim- 
pinella magna, Rosa micrantha, Carduus nutans, 
Orobanche Hederce, Ceratophyllum demersum, Festuca 
sylvatica. 

The Burren Limestones 

The areas of bare limestone which form a character- 
istic feature of certain tracts, especially in Clare and 
Galway, harbour one of the most remarkable floras 
to be found in Ireland. This formation and its accom- 
panying vegetation attain their most striking expression 
on the hills of the Burren district in northern Clare. 
Here, over miles of hill and valley, nothing but bare 
grey rock is to be seen, its innumerable joints worn 
by weather into a criss-cross of deep fissures which 
harbour a luxuriant vegetation. This naked ground 
descends the hills, sweeping down on the southward 
into central Clare, and on the north surrounding the head 
of Galway Bay and fringing Lough Corrib and Lough 




I 

o 



I 



8 

5 



86 MUNSTER 

Mask, only ceasing at Lough Carra in Mayo. Seaward 
it occupies in most pronounced form the Aran Islands. 
Its flora is distinct from that of any other tract in 
Ireland, being remarkable both for the great abundance 
of certain plants which usually are locally and sparingly 
distributed, and for the occurrence, often also in great 
profusion, of many rare plants, usually of distinctly 
southern or northern type. A list of the abundant 
species which immediately impress the eye, and one or 
other of which in places form the bulk of the vegetation, 
will include : 

Arenaria verna Asperula cynanchica 

Geranium sanguineum Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi 

Rubus saxatilis Gentiana verna 

Dryas octopetala Euphrasia Salisburgensis 

Saxifraga hypnoides Sesleria coerulea 

Rubia peregrina Scolopendrium vulgare 

Galium sylvestre Ceterach ofncinarum 

Among other species which are less widespread, 
though many of them attain an abundant development 
locally, are : 

Helianthemum vineale Ajuga pyramidalis 

Viola stagnina Taxus baccata 

Spiraea Filipendula Juniperus nana 

Potentilla fruticosa Spiranthes autumnalis 

Saxifraga Sternbergii Epipactis atro-rubens 

Galium boreale Ophrys muscifera 

Pyrola media Neotinea intacta 

Orobanche rubra Adiantum Capillus-Veneris 

It will be observed that in spite of an extraordinary 
mixture of types, the dominant note of this assemblage 



BOTANY 87 

is alpine- arctic. Sheets of the Dryas, Arctostaphylos, 
Gentian, and Sesleria cover the ground, all descending 
to sea-level, and this in a mild area where frost and snow 
are very rare. Growing with these we find such southern 
types as Neotinea intacta and Adiantum Capillus- 
Veneris, neither of them known elsewhere from so high 
a latitude, the first having its nearest station in the 
Mediterranean, the other being a southern species of 
very wide range. No such extraordinary assemblage 
of plants is to be found elsewhere in the British Isles. 

The Galtees 

This fine mountain group, lying mostly in Tipperary, 
rises to over 3000 ft. (Galtymore, 3015 ft.). They are 
formed of Silurian and Devonian rocks, and on the 
northern slope present a very impressive appearance, 
with numerous lofty precipices overhanging deep tarns. 
Botanical interest centres on these northern cliff-ranges. 
Here Arabis petraa has one of its two Irish stations, 
the other being in Glenade, in Co. Leitrim. Saxtfraga 
umbrosa nourishes also, finding here its south-eastern 
limit in Ireland. Other mountain plants which occur 
are Meconopsis cambnca, CoMearia alpina, Sedum 
rossum, Saxifraga stellaris, S. sponhemica, S. Stern- 
bergii, Saussurea alpina, Hieracium anglicum, V ac- 
tinium Vitis-Id&a, Oxyria digyna, Salix herbacea. 
The profusion in which many of these grow on some of 
the precipices, as on the cliffs over Lough Muskry, 
compensates for the smallness of their number, and is 
a striking feature of the botany of the range. The 
flora of the waters of the lakes is, on the contrary, 
exceedingly poor. 



88 MUNSTER 

The Shannon Estuary 

The Shannon becomes tidal at Limerick, and, widen- 
ing into a great estuary, enters the Atlantic 60 miles 
further on, its mouth being 10 miles wide. The upper 
reaches are river-like and muddy. Here Scirpus 
triqueier grows in abundance, a very rare plant, un- 
known elsewhere in Ireland, and in England found 
only in three southern estuaries. It is accompanied 
by Nasturtium sylvestre, CoMearia anglica, Typha an- 
gustifolia (all very local in Ireland), Scirpus Taber- 
ncemontani, S. maritimus and Phragmites communis. 
The adjoining marshy meadows yield A Ilium vineale, 
Leucofum astivum, Car&% riparia, Hordeum secalinum, 
and other plants in abundance. The middle parts of 
the estuary are island-studded, with gravelly or muddy 
shores. Here we find quantities of Glyceria festucce- 
formis, a Mediterranean grass elsewhere known only 
from Co. Down, and G. Foucaudi, found elsewhere only 
in S.E. England and France ; also such plants as 
Apium gra-veolens, (Enanthe Lachenalii, Artemisia mari- 
tima, Statice rariflora, Beta maritima. The lower part 
of the estuary assumes the form of an open sea-inlet 
with rocky and sandy shores, yielding Glaucium flavum, 
Raphanus maritimus, Spergularia rupestris, Crithmum 
maritimum, Euphorbia portlandica, and other species 
of similar habitat. 

Lough Derg 

Lough Derg is the lower of the two great lake-like ex- 
pansions of the Shannon, the other, Lough Ree, lying 
further up the river. Save at its southern end, where 
the lake is embosomed in hills of Silurian slate, the 



BOTANY 89 

winding shores are formed of low-lying limestones, and 
the numerous islands are composed of the same rock. 
Botanical interest centres on the low, uncultivated islets 
and reefs, and on the sloping, stony shores. Here a 
peculiar flora is developed, as the following list of 
abundant plants will show : 

Rhamnus catharticus Hieracium umbellatum 

Hypericum perforatum Lysimachia vulgaris 

Geranium sanguineum Samolus Valerandi 

Rubus csesius Erythraea Centaur eum 

Rosa spinosissima Chlora perfoliata 

Parnassia palustris Gentiana Amarella 

Viburnum Opulus Lycopus europ^us 

Galium boreale Teucrium Scordium 

Eupatorium cannabinum Juniperus communis 

Solidago Virgaurea Schcenus nigricans 

Ant enn aria dioica Sesleria coerulea 

Carlina vulgaris Selaginella selaginoides 
Cnicus pratensis 

The rarest plant of the lake shores is Inula salicina, 
which occurs in many places. Although this species 
ranges widely in Europe and Asia, it is unknown else- 
where in the British Isles. And other rare plants are the 
American Sisyrinchium angustifolium, which grow in 
several places, being abundant along the Woodford river. 

Among bryologists, the name of Killarney is famous 
as the home of a wonderfully rich moss flora, rich not 
only in rare species, but on account of the delightful 
profusion and luxuriance in which many of them grow. 
The neighbourhood of Glengariff, lying in Co. Cork, 
20 miles to the southward, and like Killarney a sheltered, 



90 MUNSTER 

richly-wooded spot, repeats in some degree the flora 
of the former place, and when other portions of the 
remarkably mild, damp valleys of Kerry and West Cork 
come to be well explored, no doubt fresh stations for 
many of the Killarney rarities will be found. 

Among the most interesting mosses of this south- 
western district (Kerry and Cork) are : Trichostomum 
hibernicum (not known anywhere else), Daltonia splach- 
noides (Co. Dublin is the only other station in the 
British Isles), Leptodontium recurvifolium, Trichostomum 
fragile, Barbula Hornschuchiana, Ulota Ludwigii, U. 
calvescens, (Edipodium Griffithianum, Philonotis Wil- 
soni (elsewhere in the British Isles in Merioneth 
and Forfar only), P. rigida, P. seriata, Weber a Tozeri, 
Ditrichum tortile, Campylopus Schimperi, C. Shawii 
(elsewhere in the British Isles known from the Hebrides 
alone), C. introflexus (unknown elsewhere in Ireland : in 
Great Britain in N. Wales only), Dicranum flagellare, 
Fissidens polyphyllus, Campylostelium saxicola, Bryum 
affine, B. Mildeanum, Sematophyllum demissum (in 
Ireland only here ; N. Wales ; Cumberland), S. micans 
(also unknown elsewhere in Ireland ; in Great Britain 
occurs in Cumberland and the West Highlands), and 
Hypnum kamulosum. 

The following may be mentioned also : Tortula gracilis 
(Limerick), Dicranum schisti (S. Tipperary), Bryum 
Duvalii (Waterford, only Irish station), the beautiful 
Hookeria latevirens (confined in Great Britain to Kerry, 
Cork, Waterford, and Cornwall, with a tropical range 
abroad), and the calcicole Eurhynchium striatulum 
(Kerry and Limerick). 

The south-west of Ireland, and the county of Kerry 



BOTANY 91 

in particular, is the richest and most interesting ground 
for hepatics to be found in the British Isles. This is 
mainly the result of the extremely mild, moist conditions 
which prevail there, and the rarest species which occur, 
if they are found elsewhere at all, belong to countries 
to the southward. Some of these are unknown else- 
where : others are found nowhere else in the British 
Isles ; many others, again, have here their only Irish 
station. Some of the species range up the west coast, 
and a few of these reappear in western Scotland. Some 
of the rarest species occur in extraordinary abundance. 

Among the greatest treasures of the district are : Cepha- 
Lozia hibernica (Killainey only), Plagiochila ambagiosa 
(Bantry), Lejeunea flava (Killarney), L. Holtii and L. 
diversiloba (several Kerry stations), Radula Holtii and 
Bazzania Pearsoni (Killarney and West Mayo). Other 
species which find here their only Irish station are: 
Lepidozia Pearsoni (Brandon Mountain), Fossombronia 
Dumortieri (Farranfore), Anthoceros lams (Ventry), 
Prionolobus Turneri (Bantry and Killarney), and 
Madotheca Porella (Cork and Kerry, various stations). 
The beautiful Scapania nimbosa is recorded from 
Brandon in Kerry and Slievemore in Mayo. 

Among many other very rare species which occur may 
be mentioned Radula Carringtonii, R. valuta, Sca- 
pania ornithopodioides, Mastigophora Woodsii, Pedino- 
phyllum interruptum, Cephalozia leucantha, Lophocolea 
fragrans, Leptoscyphus cuneifolius, Acrobolbus Wilsonii, 
Haplomitrium Hookeri, Petalophyllum Ralfsii, Palla- 
vicinia Lyellii, Dumortiera hirsuta. The profusion and 
luxuriance of liverworts in the sheltered parts of Kerry 
and West Cork is very remarkable, and is matched by 
the profuse growth of mosses and of such ferns as the 



g2 MUNSTER 

Hymenophyllums, which clothe every rock and tree. 
The remaining portions of Munster, while possessing a 
varied flora, offer nothing to compare with that of the 
south-west. 

ZOOLOGY 

KERRY now possesses the only remnant of the herds 
of Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) that were once so wide- 
spread in Ireland. The Otter (Lutra vulgaris), Badger 
(Meles taxus), Fox (Canis vulpes), and Alpine Hare 
(Lepus variabilis), are widely spread ; also the Irish 
form of the Stoat (Putorius hibernicus). The Pine 
Marten (Mustela martes) still occurs occasionally. 
The Lesser Horse-shoe Bat ,(Rhinolophus hipposideros) 
has in Kerry the southern limit of its restricted Irish 
range, which extends thence to Galway. The Great 
Grey Seal (Halichcerus grypus) is a familiar sight along 
the wilder parts of the coast. 

In Munster we find in the north extensive marshes, 
lakes, and bogs, the breeding-place of many swimming 
and wading birds. In South Tipperary and Waterford 
there are high hills with cliff ranges, and cliffs again 
on the Waterford coast. West Cork and Kerry offer 
an alternation of wooded valleys and high heathery 
mountains. The coast of Kerry is extremely broken, 
with numerous outlying islands, a safe breeding-ground 
for many species. It will thus be seen that the conditions 
offered to bird-life are extremely varied. 

Of the lakes, by far the most considerable is Lough 
Derg on the Shannon, which lies mostly in Munster. 
Its bays and islets support a large bird population in 



ZOOLOGY 



93 



the breeding season, including Common Sandpipers, 
Totanus- hypoleucus ; Redshanks, T. calidris ; Ringed 
Plovers, Mgialitis hiaticola ; Common Terns, Sterna 
fluviatilis ; Black-headed Gulls, Larus ridibundus ; 
Lesser Black-backed Gulls, L. fuscus ; Red-breasted 
Mergansers, Mergus serrator ; Tufted Ducks, Fuligula 
cristata ; Shovellers, Spatula clypeata ; and Great 
Crested Grebes, Podicipes cristatus. These species, in 
greater or less number, constitute the fauna of most 
of the lakes of the province. 

On the mountains the Raven, Corvus cor ax ; Peregrine, 
Falco peregrinus] and Merlin, F. c&salon, are familiar 
residents ; Curlew, Numenius arquata, and Golden 
Plover, Charadriifs pluvialis, nest on the lonely moors. 
The Ring Ouzel, Turdus torquatus, and numbers of 
Stonechats, Pratincola rubicola, and Wheatears, Saxicola 
cenanthe, haunt the heaths ; and Grey Wagtails, Mota- 
cilla melanope, and Dippers, Cinclus aquaticus, are 
familiar denizens of the streams. 

On lowland bogs the Lesser Black-backed Gull, Larus 
fuscus, and Black-headed Gull, L. ridibundus, have large 
colonies. The Nightjar, Caprimulgus europ&us, is more 
abundant in Munster than elsewhere in Ireland. Among 
the larger birds which have recently vanished, or are. 
on the point of extinction, are the Golden Eagle, Aquila 
chrysaetus (extinct), White-tailed Eagle, Haliaetus albicilla, 
and Marsh Harrier, Circus ceruginosus. The Hen Harrier, 
C. cyaneus, still breeds among the mountains. 

On the coasts and rocky islands there are great 
colonies of certain gregarious species : Guillemots, 
Uria troile ; Razorbills, Alca tor da ; Puffins, Fratercula 
arctica ; Kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, and so on. 

In lesser numbers we find the Manx Shearwater, 



94 MUNSTER 

Puffinus anglorum (abundant on the Skelligs, rarer 
elsewhere) ; Black Guillemot, U. grylle ; Chough, 
Pyrrhocorax graculus (still abundant in remote places) ; 
Hooded Crow, Corvus comix ; Storm Petrel, Procellaria 
pelagica, which breeds in numbers on the Kerry coast. 
One of the rarest breeders is Leach's Fork-tailed Petrel, 
Oceanodroma leucorrhoa, of which a few eggs have been 
obtained on the Blasket Islands. The noblest and 
most interesting of the marine breeding birds of Munster 
is the Gannet, Sula bassana. It nests in only four spots 
in the British Isles, and of these two are situated off 
the Munster coast the Bull Rock in Cork and the Little 
Skellig in Kerry. On each rock there is a large colony. 
The most recent accession to the list of breeding birds 
is the Fulmar, Fulmarus glacialis, which has lately 
established itself. The breeding of the Common Gull, 
Icwus canus, is interesting, the Kerry colonies being the 
most southern in Western Europe. 

Among the inland breeding birds which haunt the 
woodlands are the Blackcap, Silvia atricapilla; Garden 
Warbler, S. hortensis (very local) ; Golden-crested 
Wren, Regulus cristatus (common) ; Crossbill, Loxia 
curvirostra (local) ; Siskin, Carduelis spinus ; Tree- 
Creeper, Cerfkia familiaris ; Long-eared Owl, Asio 
otus ; and Heron, Ardea cinerea. As elsewhere in 
Ireland, the Woodcock, Scolo-pax rusticula, has largely 
increased as a breeding species. Though the Turtle 
Dove, Turtur commums, is frequently seen in summer, 
the nest has not so far been discovered. 

In winter the fauna of the fields and woods is swelled 
by the arrival from the east of vast flocks of -such 
birds as Song-Thrushes, Turdus musicus ; Blackbirds, 
T. merula ; Fieldfares, T. pilaris ; Redwings, T. iliacus ; 



ZOOLOGY 95 

Starlings, Sturnus vulgaris ; Skylarks, Alan da arvensis ; 
Meadow-Pipits, Anthus pratensis ; and Chaffinches, 
Fringilla ccelebs. 

Among the birds which are known to have spread or 
to be spreading in the district are the Shoveller, Spatula 
clypeata ; Tufted Duck, Fuligula cristata, and Woodcock, 
Scolopax rusticula, all of which have largely increased 
as breeding species ; the Stock-Dove, Columba cenas, 
a recent arrival in Ireland ; the Missel-Thrush, Turdus 
viscivorus, which seems to have arrived only a little 
over a century ago ; and the Magpie, Pica rustica, first 
observed in Ireland near the end of the seventeenth 
century. 

The Woodlark, Alauda arbor ea, formerly known 
to nest in Cork and Waterford, has apparently ceased 
breeding here, as elsewhere in Ireland, and the Quail, 
Coturnix communis, formerly abundant, is now almost 
unknown. 

Of rare stragglers to Ireland, quite a number have been 
taken in the province, many of them at island light- 
stations, others on the mainland. Munster can claim 
the only Irish records for the following species : 
Melodious Warbler, Hypolais polyglotta (Old Head of 
Kinsale) ; Yellow-browed Warbler, Phylloscopus super- 
ciliosus (Tearaght light-station) ; Rufous Warbler, 
Aedon galactodes (Old Head of Kinsale) ; Griffon Vul- 
ture, Gyps fulvus, and Spotted Eagle, Aquila maculata 
(both Co. Cork) ; Red-crested Pochard, Netta rufina 
(Tralee, Co. Kerry) ; Great Bustard, Otis tar da (two 
near Thurles, Co. Tipperary) ; Baillon's Crake, Porzana 
Bailloni (one at Youghal and one at Tramore) ; Tem- 
minck's Stint, Tringa Temmincki (Tralee) ; Little Dusky 
Shearwater, Puffinus assimilis (Bull Rock, Co. Cork). 



9 6 MUNSTER 

Near the mouth of Waterford Harbour, in May 1834, 
the last specimen of the Great Auk, Alca impennis, seen 
in the British Isles was taken in a landing-net by a 
fisherman named Kirby. It lived in captivity for four 
months, and the mounted skin is preserved in Trinity 
College, Dublin. The fact that bones of this bird have 
been obtained in some numbers in kitchen-middens 
in Waterford, Clare, and Antrim points to the conclusion 
that it was an article of food among the prehistoric 
people in Ireland. 

The only Irish reptile, the Viviparous Lizard (Lacerta 
vivipam), is frequent. The little Natterjack Toad (Bufo 
calamita) is in Ireland confined to a limited area in Co. 
Kerry, where it is abundant. Co. Waterford boasts 
the record of the " first Frog " (Rana tem-porana] seen 
in Ireland the authority being Giraldus Cambrensis, 
and the date about 1187. A later, more circumstantial 
account of the introduction of this amphibian places the 
date at 1699, and the venue at Trinity College Park, 
Dublin. But the occurrence of Frog remains in the 
deposits found in several Irish caves would seem to 
show that this animal is an old native of the country. 
The Common Newt (Molge vulgaris) is the only other 
amphibian occurring in the area. 

Ireland is comparatively poor in fresh-water fishes ; 
almost all of those found in the country occur in Munster. 
Salmon, Salmo solar, are abundant, and the Salmon 
fisheries are valuable. The Sea-Trout, 5. trutta and S. 
cambricus, and the Common Trout, S. fario, in its various 
forms (estuarius, stomacMcus, &n.dferox) , also abound. Of 
the Charrs, S. Colei is found in Lough Currane. Two other 



ZOOLOGY 



97 



forms, lately described, occur in Kerry 5. fimbriatus 
in Lough Coomasaharn, and S. obtusus in Kill Lough 
and Lough Acoose. Both are so far unknown outside 
Ireland. The endemic Shannon Pollan, Coregonus elegans, 
is found in Lough Derg. The Allis Shad, Clupea alosa, 
is frequent ; the Twaite Shad, C. finta, has been taken 
in the Lakes of Killarney and in the Blackwater. The 
Dace, Leuciscus vulgaris, has its only known Irish station 
in the lower reaches of the Blackwater. The remaining 
fishes occurring in the province do not need special 
comment. 

The most interesting species in the molluskan fauna 
of Munster is undoubtedly the " Kerry Slug," Geomalacus 
maculosus. It is abundant over a considerable area 
of South Kerry and West Cork, and in damp weather 
may be seen crawling over the rocks and feeding on 
the lichens which grow on them. Being itself of a grey 
colour with black spots, it closely resembles in tint the 
lichen- covered rocks among which it lives. Elsewhere 
it is found only in north-west Spain and Portugal, and 
it is one of the most remarkable members of the Hiberno- 
Lusitanian fauna whose origin is discussed in the account 
of the Irish fauna in the " Ireland " volume of this 
series. Next in interest come two Limnaeas, L. involuta 
and L. pratenuis, extreme forms of the pereger group, 
both confined to Ireland ; the former known only from 
the Killarney-Glengariff area, the latter occurring also 
in the district around Belleek in the north-west of Ireland. 
A closely allied form occurs on Achill Island, West 
Mayo. Another rare species, Pisidium hibernicum, i$ 
found in this Killarney-Glengariff area. It occurs also 
in Galway and in Sweden. Muckross, near Killarney,- 
m G 



9 8 



MUNSTER 



is the only Irish station for Vertigo minutissima. It 
will thus be seen that the Killarney district is one of 
extraordinary interest for the conchologist. There are 
other interesting areas in Munster. In the Suir valley, 
Paludina vivipara has recently been turned up in numbers 
in a fossil condition in the foundations of the bridge at 
Waterford a species not known as living in Ireland 




The Kerry Slug (Geomalacus maculosus] 
beside the lichen on which it feeds 

and Helicigona lapicida, hitherto unknown in Ireland, 
has recently been discovered living at Fermoy on the 
Blackwater, The Burren district in Clare is famous for 
the race of enormous Helix nemoralis that lives in the 
chinks of its limestone rocks. These resemble 'the 
German Pleistocene form H. tonnensis, Sandberger. 
Other interesting Munster species are : Hyalinia lucida 
(widespread, except in the west), Zonitoides excavatus 
(throughout the province, off the limestone), Helicella 
barbara (widespread, both on the coast and inland), 
granulata (locally plentiful), Acanthinula 



ZOOLOGY 99 

lamellate, (in every county), C&cilioides acicula (local), 
Pupa anglica (in every county), Vertigo Lilljeborgi 
(Lough Allua, W. Cork, very rare), V. pusilla (very 




Lirnncea pv&tenuis 

local), Succinea oblonga (Kerry, Cork, Tipperary, Clare), 
Paludestrina confusa (estuaries of the Shannon, Suir 
and Barrow), Acicula lineata (widespread), Margaritona 
margaritifera (local). 



ioo MUNSTER 

The district from which many of the more interesting 
butterflies and moths come is Killarney, that favoured 
home of rare species, both animal and vegetable. Kerry, 
Cork and Waterford between them supply almost all 
the stations for the scarcer forms. Among the butter- 
flies, Killarney is the only Irish station for Argynnis 
latonia, Melitcea athalia, and Syrichthus mal-uce. Other 
rare Munster butterflies are Colias hyale (appeared in 
numbers in 1868), Gonepteryx rhawini (Killarney and 
Dinas), Theda betula (locally frequent), Hesperia 
thaumas (near Cork), and H. sylvanus (Killarney). From 
the long list of moths the following may be selected: 
Leucania Loreyi (Queenstown, an extremely rare insect) ; 
Sesia scoliteformis (Kenmare and Killarney) ; the Lime 
Hawk-moth, Smerinthes tilicB (Killarney) ; the Galway 
Burnet, Zyg&na pilosellce, var. nubigena (limestone 
pastures of northern Clare, elsewhere in Ireland known 
only from the adjoining similar ground in Galway) ; 
the southern Lithosia caniola (Tramore) ; the Lobster 
Moth, Stauropus fagi (two specimens near Kenmare) ; 
the rare Notodonta bicoloria (Killarney and Kenmare) ; 
Leucania Loreyi (two examples taken in Sussex in 1862 
and one at Queenstown in 1910 constitute the only 
records in the British Isles) ; the southern L. mtellina 
(Courtmacsherry) ; Nonagria sparganii (not rare be- 
tween Old Head of Kinsale and Glandore : in England 
only in Kent) ; Aporophyla australis (sandhills in Water- 
ford) ; the southern Laphygma exigua (Timoleague, 
Co. Cork) ; A gratis rapes (sandhills at Rossbeigh, Kerry) ; 
T&niocampa populeti (Killarney) ; the rare melanic var. 
Barrettii of Dianthcecia luteago (coasts of Waterford 
and Cork) ; Cucullea absinthii (Timoleague, Co. Cork) ; 
Helisthis peltigera (Castlehaven and Crookhaven, Co. 



ZOOLOGY 101 

Cork) ; H. armigera (Glengariff) ; Tholomiges turfosalis 
(Killarney, only Irish station) ; the geometer Peri- 
callia syringaria (Cappagh, Co. Waterford) ; and the rare 
plume-moth Platyptilia tesseradactyla (Clare and Galway). 

In the south-west, around Killarney and Glengariff, 
a number of interesting beetles are recorded, including 
the alpine Leistus montanus (on the mountains), the rare 
Pelophilus borealis (Killarney lake-shores), Harp aim 
meloncholicus (Glengariff, only Irish station), Lebia 
crux-minor and the long-horn Anoplodera sexguttala 
(both at Muckross, ditto), Anisosticta xix-punctata 
(Kenmare, ditto), Elater prc&ustus (Glencar, ditto), 
the alpine Pryopterus affinis and Aromia moschata 
(Killarney and Kenmare), Strangalia aurulenta and the 
northern Donacia obscura (both Glengariff). Other 
beetles which in Ireland are known from Munster alone 
are Carabus cancellatus (Rosscarbery, only certain record 
for the British Isles), Elaphrus uliginosus (Gap of 
Dunloe and Glengariff), Pterostichus aterrimus (near 
Cork), and Chrysomela sanguinolenta (Rosscarbery). 
On the sea-shore of Cork and Kerry Amara convexiuscula 
and Aepus Robinii have been taken. On lake-shores 
and river-banks occur Panagaus crux-major (Finlough, 
Co. Clare), Chlcenius holosericeus (Cork and Kerry), 
Bidessus minutissimus (rivers at Kenmare and Cork), 
and Silpha dispar (Lough Derg). The mountain 
beetles include Carabus glabratus and C. clathraius 
(both in several counties), and the beautiful Chrysomela 
cerealis (Knockmealdown) , which is unknown elsewhere 
in Ireland, has been taken in Great Britain only on 
Snowdon. In spite of the remarkably mild climate of 
the south of Ireland, distinctively northern species are 



102 MUNSTER 

rather ["characteristic ; such, for instance, as Blethisa 
multipunctata (marshes, frequent), Pselaphus dresdensis 
(Killarney), the Cockchafer Melolontha hippocastani 
(Cork and Kerry), Lema septentrionalis (Waterford and 
Cork), and Otionhynchus blandus (frequent). Against 
these there are very few distinctively southern forms. 
The following beetles may also be mentioned : Clamgev 
testaceus (Waterford), Silpha quadripunctata (Clare and 
Waterford), S. subrotundata (common, as elsewhere in 
Ireland), the conspicuous Timarcha tenebricosa (Waterford 
and Tipperary), and the Holly-boring Weevil, Rhopalo- 
mesites Tardyi, so frequent in Ireland and so rare 
elsewhere, which is on record in this district from Cork 
and Kerry. 

The Mitchelstown cave in Co. Tipperary, a cavern 
a mile and a quarter in length, is inhabited by Por- 
rhomma myops, an interesting spider with degenerate 
eyes, elsewhere known only from the cave of Espezel, 
Dept. of Aude, in southern France. Another very 
rare Munster spider is Tegenaria hibemica, taken at 
Cork and Skibbereen, and found also in Dublin (abun- 
dant), Wicklow and S.E. Galway. This species is un- 
known outside Ireland, and has its nearest relatives in 
the Pyrenees. It is an interesting member of the old 
Hiberno-Lusitanian fauna which is described and dis- 
cussed at some length in the Ireland volume of the 
present series. The following spiders have not so far 
been obtained in Ireland beyond the confines of Munster : 
Prothesima longipes and Euophrys evraticus (both 
Clare).; Xysticus lanio, Epeira adianta, and Hyctra 
Nivoyi (all in Waterford) ; Xysticus pini, Euryopis 
flavomaculata, Tmeticus rivalis, Hilaira montigena, 



ZOOLOGY 103 

Tetragnatha pinicola and Mangora acalypha (all from 
Kerry) ; Teutana grossa and Hyptiotes paradoxus (both 
Cork), and Pholcus phalangoides (Waterford, Limerick, 
Cork and Kerry). The following species are also 
worthy of mention : Micariosoma festivum (Cork and 
Clare, also in Leinster) ; Tegenaria atrica (Cork and 
Limerick, also Dublin) ; Stylocteton uncinus (Kerry ; 
also in Ulster ; unknown outside the British Isles) ; 
Pardosa purbeckensis (Kerry ; also in Connaught ; like 
the last, unknown outside the British area). The follow- 
ing notable species occur in several Munster counties, 
and are widely spread in Ireland : Cyclosa conica, 
Pisaura mirabilis, Dolomedes fimbriatus, Misumena 
vaiia, and Angelena labyrinthica. 

Space does not permit of any account of the other 
groups of Arthropods or of lower forms, but brief 
reference may be made to a few miscellaneous species 
which are of special interest. Among the dragonflies, 
Libellula fulva, rare in Great Britain, has its only Irish 
station at Dingle, and Somatochlora arctica, an insect 
of arctic and alpine range, in Great Britain confined 
to a few Scottish mountains, occurs in Ireland only 
in Kerry. The only scorpion-fly found in Ireland 
is Panorpa germanica, taken at Blarney and Youghal. 
Among the Hemiptera, Mpophilus Bonnairei is an 
interesting member of the Lusitanian fauna already 
alluded to, being confined in its range to south (Dun- 
garvan) and west Ireland, S.W. England, France and 
Spain, its habitat being between tide-marks. The large 
Grasshopper Mecostethus grossus occurs in Kerry 
an insect with a puzzling range, but mainly northern. 
The fresh-water shrimp Mysis relicta has been taken 
in the Shannon at Portumna ; it is unknown in Great 



104 MUNSTER 

Britain, ranging across Northern Europe and America. 
Eisenia veneta is an interesting earthworm, occurring, 
in the variety zebra, at Limerick. The species has a 
wide but discontinuous Mediterranean range, the 
Limerick form being known elsewhere only from Trans- 
caucasia. The fresh- water sponge Heteromeyenia Ryderi, 
which is confined to North America and Ireland, is 
abundant in the district. 



ANTIQUITIES 

MUNSTER contains numerous antiquities both prehistoric 
and historic. Many of the former are to be seen in 
Co. Kerry, while the most striking group of ecclesiastical 
buildings in Ireland is situated on the rock of Cashel, 
Co. Tipperary. The largest county in Ireland, Cork, 
which forms part of the province, contains an unusually 
large number of prehistoric and later antiquities. 

There is no native flint in the district, and, though 
it is probable that the neolithic population imported 
it from the north of Ireland, flint implements have 
rarely been found in this part of the country : a 
number of polished axes have been discovered, and, 
as dolmens, stone circles, and other megalithic re- 
mains abound, we may conjecture that the neolithic 
population was a large one and was organised into 
tribes; the erection of great stone monuments point- 
ing to a considerable amount of social organisation 
and to an advanced form of religious belief. As the 
province contains some of the most fertile land in 
Ireland, it is natural that it should have been occupied 
and prosperous from early times. Numerous antiquities 



ANTIQUITIES 105 

of Bronze-Age date have been found in the different 
counties, while the discovery of the so-called " Clare 
find" of gold ornaments indicates wealth in this 
precious metal. The great number of forts of all types 
scattered through the province show that it was well popu- 
lated in prehistoric and later times ; two of its principal 
cities, Waterford and Limerick, were founded by the 
Norsemen. 

Among the finds of prehistoric objects the most re- 
markable is the " Great Clare find." It was discovered 
when a cutting was made for the Limerick and Ennis 
Railway in 1854, by a gang of workmen who were 
digging a piece of ground lying a little to the south of 
the railway bridge in Moghaun north, on the west of 
Moghaun fort, opposite the lake. The workmen under- 
mined a stone cist, and the fall of one of the stones 
disclosed a mass of gold ornaments of various types 
gorgets, necklets, bracelets, and some ingots. The 
value of the find has been stated to be about 6000 ; 
if it had been preserved entire it would have been the 
largest find of associated gold objects of Bronze Age 
date that has yet been discovered in Western Europe. 
Unfortunately most of the ornaments were sold to 
jewellers and melted down ; only a small number were 
preserved, some of which are now to be seen in the 
National Museum, Dublin. 

Another interesting find was made at Mountrivers, 
Rylane, Coachford, Co. Cork, in May 1907, by two men 
when making a fence ; it included two gold fibulas, a 
penannular copper ring, two bronze celts, and eleven 
amber beadX The find may be placed in the late Bronze 
Age, and is of importance as indicating trade relations 
between Scandinavia and Ireland at this early date. 



106 MUNSTER 

There is little doubt that the amber was derived from 
the north. Irish gold ornaments have been found in 
Scandinavia and were probably bartered for amber, 
which was much prized in prehistoric times. 

It is impossible in the space at our disposal to give 
more than a slight sketch of the principal archaeological 
and architectural monuments of Munster ; it will there- 
fore be understood that the following account is only 
intended to convey a general impression of some of the 
more important antiquities of the province. 

An archaeologist of repute, who has given some 
attention to the subject, considers it probable that there 
are more stone circles in Munster alone than in the 
whole of England. 

Co. Clare is rich in megalithic remains of various kinds. 
The majority of the dolmens stretch in a broad band 
from the Burren in a south-easterly direction to Slieve 
Bernagh ; the monuments lie inland rather than on the 
coast. They are most abundant in the Burren, in the 
eastern portion of the county. The types vary, but 
the one most frequently met with is in the form of a stone 
box composed of four or more slabs with a cover. Mr 
T. J. Westropp, who has described the megalithic monu- 
ments of Clare, computed the total number at 172, 
including 84 dolmens and large cists. 1 

The dolmens of Co. Tipperary have been studied 
in some detail. 2 They number twenty-five, seven 
of which are in a fair state of preservation. The 
principal group is in the hilly district surrounding the 
village of Kilcommon. It is situated about 10 miles 

1 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, xxvi., sec. C, p. 458. 

2 Crawford, Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, 
3d., P- 38. 



ANTIQUITIES 107 

north of Dundrum station and twelve miles north-east 
of Oola station. Here can be seen the remains of eleven 
dolmens in a more or less ruined condition, and the sites 
of four others, spread over a tract of land about seven 
miles from east to west and four miles from north to 
south. In the same district are the remains of four or 
more stone circles. The best preserved dolmen in the 
county is situated at Baurnadomeeny East. It lies about 
a quarter of a mile north of the village of Rear Cross, 
in a valley to the east of the road, with its axis running 
east and west ; it measures 24 ft. in length and 10 ft. in 
breadth. Its eastern end makes a rectangular chamber 
10 ft. long, 4 ft. wide, and 4 ft. high : its roof is formed 
of four large stones. The western chamber measures 
nearly 7 ft. square and 3 ft. 6 in. high. The amount of 
earth which still remains on the roof of the dolmen 
points to it having been originally covered by a mound ; 
traces of a stone circle which formerly surrounded the 
dolmen may also be observed. 

Though the monuments differ much in size, all appear 
to belong to one type that is, "a long, low dolmen, 
with sides parallel or slightly tapering towards the east, 
and formed of two or three rows of upright stones placed 
close together. The central, or perhaps more strictly the 
eastern, part is a long, narrow chamber, roofed with 
several large slabs, which are laid almost level or with a 
slight slope towards the east. To the west of this is a 
somewhat wider and shorter chamber, separated from the 
former by one of the most massive stones in the whole 
structure, and having its roof set at a somewhat higher 
level." 

Co. Cork contains numerous megalithic remains. 
Borlase mentioned seventy-one dolmens, but many of 



io8 MUNSTER 

these were then in a state of dilapidation, and only 
represented by a single stone. A number of stone 
circles, standing stones, and earns are also to be seen 
in the county. 

The dolmens of Co. Kerry number, according to 
Borlase, twenty-two. Two in the townland of Gortna- 
gulla may be mentioned, as they have been examined 
and planned in recent years. Both are wedge-shaped 
structures and belong to a type common in the South 
of Ireland. 

Several stone circles of interest are also to be seen, 
among the most important being that of Liosavigeen, 
about three miles from Killarney. It consists of seven 
stones, which vary in height from 3 ft. to sf ft., with 
an average breadth of 3 ft. They enclose a circle of 
about 17 ft. in diameter, and are themselves surrounded 
by a ring fort of earth with a diameter of 78 ft. 

About 45 ft. south of the top of the rampart of the 
fort are two standing stones ; they are 7 ft. apart, and 
the larger measures 7J ft. in height and 6 ft. 3 ins. in 
breadth; the smaller is nearly 7 ft. high and 4f ft. 
in breadth. 

There are not many dolmens in Limerick, but the 
series of megalithic monuments at Loch Gur make 
the prehistoric remains of this county of interest. Loch 
Gur is a picturesquely situated lake about 3 miles 
north of Bruff. It appears to have been the centre 
of a Bronze-Age cemetery. The lake itself was 
probably sacred, and it is likely that the large number 
of antiquities that have been found in or near it 
were deposited as votive offerings. The remains include 
nine stone circles, a dolmen, an alignment or avenue 
of stones, and numerous pillar stones. At the east side 



ANTIQUITIES 109 

of the lake is a hill called Knockadoon ; at the northern 
end of this is a mediaeval castle called Bourchier's Castle, 
and at the southern another, known as the Black Castle. 
The district belonged to the Desmonds, and legends 
connected with this family are still told by the country 
people. The largest of the stone circles is some 150 
feet in diameter and is flanked by an earthen bank. 
Several of the stones which form it are of great size, 
but it was repaired during the last century, and it is 
unfortunately impossible to say whether all the stones 
are now in their original position. The megalithic 
monuments have recently been described and illustrated 
by Sir B. C. A. Windle, F.R.S. 1 

Borlase assigns fifteen dolmens to Co. Waterford ; 
of these Knockeen is remarkable. Situated about a 
mile from Waterford city, it is of great size and 
in good preservation. One of the covering slabs is 
13 ft. long by 8 ft. wide, and weighs about ten tons ; 
it is supported by six uprights. This dolmen belongs 
to a type, fairly common in Waterford, which has 
a main chamber and an outer chamber or portico. 
About two miles further, on the main road, is another 
dolmen in the townland of Gaulstown ; it is of the same 
type as that at Knockeen, its cap-stone weighs about 
six tons. Close to this is a smaller monument of the 
cistvaen type, and about two miles further from these, 
at Ballymotey, is a remarkable pillar stone. One other 
large dolmen in the same district, situated in the town- 
land of Ballynageeragh, a mile.to the west of Dunhill, 
may be mentioned. It is well preserved ; its cap-stone, 
which measures 12 by 8 ft., is computed to weigh six 
and three-quarter tons. 

1 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, xxx., sec, C, p. 283. 



no MUNSTER 

Munster contains the largest number of forts of all 
the Irish provinces. The number has been estimated at 
12,232 : there are 7593 forts in Connacht ; 4651 in 
Leinster ; and 4283 in Ulster. It is, however, certain 
that the actual number of forts in each of the provinces 
exceeds these totals. 

Co. Kerry contains many forts of the Cashel type, 
the best-known example of these being Staigue Fort, 
situated in Kilcrohan parish, barony of Iveragh, Co. 
Kerry. It is composed of a circular wall 89 ft. in dia- 
meter, nearly 13 ft. thick at the base, and 7 ft. at the top. 
On the north and west sides the wall is 18 ft. high ; the 
north side of the wall is still perfect, and the coping- 
stones are flags about 3 feet long ; the construction 
of the wall is interesting, the stones being laid as headers 
and filled in with small stones. There is a square-headed 
doorway with sloping sides on the south ; and there 
are two small chambers in the fort one on the west 
and one on the north side. There are ten sets of stairs 
around the inside of the wall, leading to platforms 
and forming the most interesting feature of the fort. 

The Kerry forts, containing stone huts, or Clochdns, 
are very numerous ; they exist in hundreds, and in 
many cases are still intact. The remarkable early 
settlement in the south-west of the barony of Corka- 
guiney contains many such buildings. It consists of 
a group of structures which lie along the sea-coast 
between Ventry Harbour and Dunmore Head, about 
ten miles from Dingle. The settlement covers about 
four towrdands and verges on three others ; the remains 
cluster thickly round the lower parts of Mount Eagle 
and Beennacouma. It is not visible from the road, 
with the exceptions of the large forts of Dun Beag and 



ANTIQUITIES m 

Kilvickadownig. This remarkable site contains 515 
forts, numerous huts, pillar stones, and other remains. 
The most important building of the entire series is 
Dun Beag (the little fort), one of the most striking pre- 
historic antiquities of Ireland. It consists of a stone 
wall, which cuts off a promontory protected on the 
landward side by an elaborate system of earthen walls 
and trenches, the area enclosed being thus triangular 
in shape, defended on the seaward side with great 
precipices. The height of the fort is about 90-100 ft. 
above the level of the sea. The edge of the cliff was 
protected by a dry stone wall, of which about 18 ft. in 
length and 2 ft. 2 in. in thickness remains at the south 
point. One stone building or Clochdn remains inside 
the fort ; it is circular, with a diameter of about 37 ft. ; 
it had a domed roof and a movable door. The great 
wall of the fort is 139 J ft. in length, and varies in width 
from 8 ft. to ii ft. Its internal face batters by irregular 
stages marked off by terraces, which doubtless served 
the purpose of enabling the defenders to mount the walls 
and reconnoitre. The doorway is remarkable ; it is 
nearly 7 ft. in height and the same in breadth, with a 
reveal for the reception of a movable door ; to the west 
and east of it there are several chambers. It contained 
a souterrain which maintained a straight course for a 
distance of 45 ft. The defences on the landward side 
consist of an alternation of fosse and vallum. The fort 
has suffered from a restoration undertaken some years 
ago. 

Kilvickadownig is another important fort belonging 
to this group ; it contains within it three cells, and there 
is one outside. The wealth of antiquities in this early 
settlement is astonishing ; there are 414 clochans, 



H2 MUNSTER 

2 promontory forts, 7 raths, 15 forts, 12 crosses, 18 
standing and inscribed stones, including two oghams, 
19 souter rains, and 29 other ancient buildings and 
enclosures, which make a total of over 500 ancient 
remains. It is not easy to estimate the earliest period 
at which this site was inhabited, but, judging from the 
inscribed stones, Christianity was introduced not long 
after the original settlement. From the scanty remains 
of personal antiquities recovered it would appear that 
the general standard of comfort was low. The site 
and its antiquities have been surveyed by Professor 
R. A. S. Macalister, 1 and any person proposing to visit 
the remains should first read over his monograph. 

Caherconree, another promontory fort in the same 
county, is a triangular space on a spur situated a 
little below the summit of one of the Sliabh Mis moun- 
tains, commanding a magnificent view over the whole 
peninsula of Corkaguiney. It is situated at a height of 
some 2050 ft. above the sea-level. The fort is bounded 
on two sides by precipices, and on the mountain side 
by a stone wall 350 ft. long and about 15 ft. thick, now 
very ruinous, composed of the native rock (Old Red 
Sandstone). The facing stones are laid as headers ; 
there is a shallow fosse outside. The gates are defaced. 
There is no indication of any buildings independent 
of the wall inside the enclosure : a. number of trial 
pits which were sunk in the fort in 1910 revealed nothing 
but a thick mass of loose stones underneath about 
3 ft. to 4 ft. of soft turf bog. Caherconree (the fort 
of Curaoi) has the following legend, belonging to the 
Cuchulainn saga, connected with it : Curaoi was King 
of West Munster about the first century A.D. Cuchulainn, 
1 Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, xxxi., pp. 209-344. 



ANTIQUITIES 113 

the chief hero of Ulster, was in love with Guraoi's wife, 
Blanaid, who returned his passion. Taking an oppor- 
tunity, when most of Curaoi's men were absent from the 
fort, Blanaid gave the signal to Cuchulainn by pouring 
milk into the stream that runs down the mountain, 
which was afterwards named the Fionnghlaise (white 
stream). Cuchulainn, on seeing the stream become 
white, stormed the fort, killed Curaoi, and carried 
off Blanaid. 

A Munster earthwork that has claimed much attention 
is the mote of Knockgraffon, near Clonmel, Co. Tipper- 
ary. It is one of the finest motes in Ireland, measuring 
some 55 ft. in height, with a diameter of about 60 ft. 
on the top ; it is surrounded by a fosse, and has a 
hatchet-shaped bailey about 70 paces long by 57 wide 
attached to it at the western side. The bailey has a 
slight rampart round the edge, and beyond this a wide 
fosse and high vallum, the fosse of the bailey joining 
that of the mote. Mr G. H. Orpen, who considers 
Knockgraffon to be a Norman mote, has identified it 
with the castle of Knockgraffon which the Annals of 
the Four Masters record as having been built by the 
English of Leinster in 1192, in the course of their 
expedition against Domhnall Briain king of North 
Munster. Other archaeologists have ascribed an earlier 
date to this mote, and considered it to be the fort of 
Fiachaidh Muilleathan, who was king of Munster in 
the third century A.D. It is probable that Knock- 
graffon originally was a Celtic tumulus which was later 
used by the Normans as a site for a mote castle. 

Another good example of a mote is situated at Lismore, 
Co. Waterford. It is a lofty .conical mound, with a flat, 
top, divided by a fosse from a crescent-shaped bailey. 
m H 



n 4 MUNSTER 

King John erected a castellum at Lismore in 1185 A.D. ; 
probably the mote and bailey represent this. 

No less than five-sixths of the known Irish Ogham 
inscriptions have been found in Munster. Kerry 
contains 120 inscriptions, or one- third of the total. 
More than 60 of these are in the barony of Corkaguiney. 
There are some 80 inscriptions in Co. Cork and about 
40 in Co. Waterford. 

Lake Dwellings, or Crannogs, are not so numerous 
in Munster as in the other provinces, but several are 
important and have been found to contain antiquities 
valuable for the study of archaeology. 

The Crannog of Lough Gur, Co. Limerick, has yielded 
a number of objects of various descriptions at different 
times ; unfortunately it has not been scientifically 
excavated, it is therefore difficult to form any opinion as 
to when it was first inhabited. The antiquities, stated 
to have been recovered on various occasions from this 
site, include a remarkable bronze spear-head with th;e 
socket inlaid with gold ; part of a stone mould for 
casting socketed, and looped, spear-heads ; an iron 
sword of late date ; numerous stone celts, and various 
objects of bronze. 

The decorated High Crosses to be seen in this province 
number some twenty- one ; they are distributed among 
the counties of Clare, Kerry, and Tipperary ; none 
are recorded from the counties of Cork or Waterford.. 

One of the most interesting is the cross of Dysert 

O'Dea, near Corofin, Co. Clare. It stands about 

150 yards east of the church of Dysert Tola, on a 

4 small mound, and springs from a quadrangular base, 

-upon which is a large block which supports the shaft, 

head, and cap. The base of the cross is carved with 



ANTIQUITIES 115 

inscriptions stating that it was newly repaired by 
Michael O'Dea in 1683, and re-erected by Francis 
Hutcheson Synge in 1871. The north side of the base 
is carved with a figure holding a crosier of the usual 
Irish form, while two other figures hold a large tau- 
shaped crosier. On the east face of the shaft is the 
effigy of St Tola wearing a mitre and holding a crosier ; 
on the head of the cross is a representation of the 
Crucifixion. The north and south sides of the shaft, 
and the . west face, are decorated with various zoo- 
morphic, interlaced, and linear, patterns. 

Other High Crosses of interest are those at Ahenny, 
Co. Tipperary. They are situated in a graveyard 
formerly called Kilclispeen, about 4 miles north of 
Carrick-on-Suir. Neither of the crosses contain panels 
with figure sculpture representing Biblical or other 
scenes ; they are covered with every kind of spiral, 
interlaced, and fret patterns. The bases of both crosses 
are remarkable. On the west face of the north cross 
are carved seven figures, six of them holding crosiers : 
on the east is a man standing under a palm tree, with a 
number of animals in various attitudes in front of him. 
On the north side is a carving of a chariot and two 
mounted figures : on the south side is a representation 
of a procession; it is headed by men holding a ringed 
cross and a crosier, then comes a horse carrying on its 
back the headless body of a man upon which are perched 
two large birds who peck the flesh ; the procession ends 
with a man carrying a child on his back. The base of 
the south cross is in a worn state, and the carvings of 
the panels are much defaced : they represent hunting 
scenes. 

Another cross that deserves mention is the curious 



u6 MUNSTER 

tau-shaped example at Kilnaboy, about three and a half 
miles north-west of Corofin, Co. Clare. This T-shaped 
cross, measuring 2| ft. in height, is fixed into a boulder. 
Two remarkable faces are carved on its upper surface, 
one on each side of the head. 

The islands off the coast of Kerry contain some 
interesting early ecclesiastical remains. 

The monastery on Skellig Rock is difficult of approach, 
except in good weather. Jt- is one of the most curious 
primitive ecclesiastical settlements in Western Europe. 
The monastery was dedicated to St Michael : it is built 
on a rock which rises perpendicularly out of the sea to 
a great height, standing out in the Atlantic twelve miles 
from the nearest land. The remains consist of six small 
dochdns or stone huts built of dry stones with corbelled 
roofs ; the oratory of St Michael, which is the only 
structure built with mortar in the monastery; three 
other dry stone oratories ; two large and a number 
of small crosses ; a cashel or stone fort encloses the 
buildings and surrounds the edge of the precipice. 

The island was formerly a resort for pilgrims who used- 
to ascend the " Way of the Cross," various points 
of the cliffs being named after the different stations 
of the Cross. There still remain six hundred steps cut- 
out in the cliff, which rises to 720 ft. above the sea. 
The lower portion of the ascent is now broken 
away. 

The Blasket Islands are twelve in number. The 
largest, Inismore, has the ruins of an ancient church 
and a graveyard. There are the ruins of a church and 
a nearly perfect clochdn, with the foundations of several 
others, on Inisvickillane, the most southerly of the 
islands. 



ARCHITECTURE 117 

Some of the Armada ships were wrecked off the 
Blaskets, and about seventy years ago the islanders 
fished up a small brass cannon ornamented with a shield 
of arms bearing an uprooted tree. 



ARCHITECTURE 

Monastic Foundations 

Previous to the dissolution of the monasteries there 
were close on one hundred religious foundations in 
the province of Munster. Many of these were com- 
munities of importance; their ruins add much to the 
picturesqueness and interest of the province. In spite 
of the Reformation Ireland remained substantially a 
Roman Catholic country, and in many cases small 
bodies of monks faced the danger of persecution and 
returned in the seventeenth century to Ireland, leading 
a furtive existence amid the ruins of their former homes. 

One of the most interesting of the monastic remains 
in Munster are the ruins of Holy Cross Abbey, Co. 
Tipperary. This abbey was founded in 1169 A.D. by 
Domhnall Briain king of Limerick, for monks of the 
Cistercian order ; its possessions were confirmed to it by 
King John. A portion of the true Cross which had been 
presented to Donnchadh Briain by Pope Pascal II 
in i no was preserved in a jewelled shrine of gold in 
the abbey, to which it gave its name : the monastery 
owed much of its wealth to offerings made by pilgrims 
at this shrine. The remains of the abbey are extensive ; 
the cruciform church consists of an aisled nave, choir, 
transepts with eastern chapels, and a square tower at 



u8 MUNSTER 

the junction of the nave and choir. The eastern portion 
of the church has two storeys, the upper having probably 
served as a dwelling. The church was much altered 
and rebuilt in the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth 
centuries ; few traces of the original Romanesque building 
can now be seen. The fine east window is reticulated, 




Holy Cross Abbey, Co. Tipper ary 

while those of the transept-chapels are filled with 
flowing tracery of Flamboyant type. The eastern 
portion of the church has many ornamental details, 
there being two especially remarkable pieces of 
carving, one in the chancel and the other in the south 
transept. That in the chancel is known as the " Tomb 
of the Good Woman's Son/' but was evidently the 
sedilia. It has three arches with foliage cusps and 



ARCHITECTURE 119 

tracery surmounted by a canopy ; above the arches are 
shields carved with the royal arms of England, of 
Butler, and of Desmond. It is probably of early fif- 
teenth century date. Between the south transept chapels 
is the remarkable structure which has been sometimes 
considered to have been the sanctuary in which the relic 
of the Holy Cross was preserved ; it is, however, more 
probable that it was a " waking chamber, " a receptacle 
for a coffin. The roof of this monument is elaborately 
groined : the supporting pillars have twisted shafts, 
with bases, but no capitals ; the panelling below the shafts 
is carved with foliage similar to that on the sedilia: 
it is apparently of the same date. There are not many 
remains of the conventual buildings ; the cloister, which 
lay to the south, is now covered with grass ; the cellarium 
still exists at the west end : above this was the dorter 
of the lay brothers. The buildings on the south side 
of the cloister have disappeared. 

Another large and imposing monastic ruin to be seen 
in the province is the Augustinian Priory of St Edmund, 
at Athassel, Co. Tipperary. It was founded about 
1200 A.D. by William de Burgo, and dedicated to St 
Edmund, King and Martyr. It became an important 
foundation, and its prior was summoned to parliament 
as a peer. Both Walter and Richard de Burgo were 
buried in the monastery. The priory owed much to the 
de Burgo family, and there are several monuments in the 
church which probably belong to members of this house. 
At the dissolution it was granted to Thomas earl of 
Ormonde. The buildings covered a large extent of 
ground occupying about an acre, without the entrance 
gateway and courtyard. The main buildings are 
probably of thirteenth century date. The church is 



120 MUNSTER 

cruciform with an aisled nave, transepts with eastern 
chapels, a choir and a central tower, with a flanking 
tower at the north-west angle of the nave. The cloister 
lay to the south of the church, and around it the 
conventual buildings were arranged. The original 
cloister arcade was probably of wood ; the remains of 
the cloister at present to be seen date from the fifteenth 
century. 

The Dominican Friary at Kilmallock was founded in 
1291 A.D. The remains of the church and conventual 
buildings are considerable. The church consists of a 
choir, and nave with a single aisle ; a tall, square tower 
rises from the junction of the choir and nave ; there is 
a single transept to the south, and a small sacristy to 
the north, of the choir. The conventual buildings lie 
to the north ; the day-room of the Friars and the kitchen 
are in good preservation. The window in the choir, 
which consists of five slender lancets, is of pleasing 
Early-English design. There are several tombs of 
interest in the choir, the best known being the broken 
slab which marks the grave of Edmond the last White 
Knight, a descendant of the reputed founder of the 
Priory. Edmond the White Knight betrayed his kins- 
man, the Sugdn Earl of Desmond, in 1601, when the 
latter had taken refuge in the cave of Mitchelstown, 
Co. Cork. The White Knight received as a reward 
the sum of 1000 ; he died in 1608 ; his estates finally 
passed in the female line to Lord Kingston. 

Ennis Friary, Co. Clare, is worthy of mention, not so 
much on account of its architectural interest as for the 
remarkable monuments that it contains. 

The monastery was founded in the first half of the 
thirteenth century by Donnchadh Cairbrech Briain, 



ARCHITECTURE 121 

King of Thomond, for Friars Minor. It was enlarged by 
Toirrdhealbhach Briain at the end of the thirteenth 
century, and was further enlarged in the fourteenth 
and fifteenth centuries. The ruins of the church consist 
of a chancel and nave with a lofty tower at their junction. 




Ennis Friary, Co. Clare 

The most important of the monuments is the so-called 
Royal or MacMahon tomb, which is built against the 
north wall of the chancel near the east gable. It was 
at one time a mere heap of stones, but the sculptured 
slabs were rebuilt about 1843. The carved slabs have 
been described as being " probably the finest and 
most spirited series of late fifteenth-century carvings 



122 MUNSTER 

of the Passion in our Irish monasteries." The sub- 
jects include, the Betrayal of our Lord, the Flagellation, 
the Crucifixion, the Entombment, and Resurrection. The 
ancient canopy of this tomb fell down in recent times, 
and a modern one, imitated from that of the Inchiquin 
tomb, was erected in its place. The second canopied 
tomb stands against the south wall of the chancel and 
is probably of late fifteenth century date. It covers 
the graves of King Toirrdhealbach ; Cu-Meadha Mac- 
Conmara; and some of the Lords Inchiquin. It is 
decorated with some gracefully carved floral designs. 

The Franciscan Friary of Askeaton, Co. Limerick, 
is a ruin of large extent and considerable interest. It 
stands on the east bank of the River Deel. The 
buildings include a church and transept to the north, 
with a cloister, which is in good preservation, to the 
south. 

Another Franciscan house that deserves mention is 
the monastery of Kilcrea, Co. Cork. Commonly called 
Kilcrea Abbey, it was founded in 1465 A.D. by Cormac 
MacCarthaigh, Lord of Muskerry, and dedicated to 
St Brigid. The church consists of a choir and nave 
with a south aisle, and a transept, with a lofty tower at 
the junction of the choir and nave. The cloister, sur- 
rounded by the conventual buildings, is to the north. 
The architecture is plain, and the lofty tower, about 
80 ft. high, is the most striking feature of the 
ruin. The priory had a curious history ; at the dis- 
solution it was granted to Sir Cormac MacTaidhg, 
who did not disturb the Friars. In 1596 the convent 
was leased to Richard Harding, who also does not appear 
to have turned out the Friars. It was looted in 1599, 
but in 1604 the Friars returned. In 1614 it was 



ARCHITECTURE 



123 



again granted away by the Lord Deputy, one of the 
conditions being that the Friars should be driven out. 




Trinitarian Friary, Adare, Co. Limerick 

The ecclesiastical remains at Adare, Co. Limerick, 
are picturesque and interesting. Situated close to 
Adare Manor, the seat of the Earl of Dunraven, they 



124 MUNSTER 

consist of the ruins of three monasteries : one founded 
for Trinitarian Friars, another for Augustinian Hermits, 
and the third for Franciscan Friars Observant. The 
Trinitarian monastery was founded in 1230 A.D. ; the 
present remains consist of the church, and one wall of the 
buildings which composed the north side of the cloister, 
with a large tower at the western end, and a smaller 
one at the eastern end. The church has a nave, chancel 
and north transept, and a square central tower, with an 
embattled roof, at the junction of the nave and chancel. 
The north transept was lengthened and converted into a 
convent schoolroom in the last century. The church 
was repaired, enlarged, and the chancel rebuilt in 1852. 
Near it is an interesting low dovecot of circular form 
with a conical stone roof. 

The Augustinian monastery was founded for Hermits 
of the order of St Augustine in 1315 by John earl of 
Kildare. The remains include the church, the cloisters, 
the refectory, and a long building extending to the 
north. The church consists of a chancel, a nave with a 
south aisle, and a square tower at the junction of the 
nave and chancel. This building was later converted 
into a Protestant church ; its architecture does not call 
for remark. Attached to the north-east angle of the 
building, on the north side of the cloisters, is a gateway 
with two shields over the arch, one bearing the arms 
of the Desmond FitzGeralds, the other those of the 
Leinster FitzGeralds. These shields probably com- 
memorate the founders of this portion of the building. 
The ancient dovecot attached to the priory is still in 
existence. 

The Franciscan Friary was founded in 1464 by Thomas 
earl of Kildare, and his wife Joanna. It was one of the 



ARCHITECTURE 



125 



most celebrated convents in the province of Munster, 
and, though of moderate size, is of interest owing to the 
completeness of its various buildings, being a good 
example of the Irish monastic architecture of the 
fifteenth century. The remains consist of a church 
with a nave, square tower, and chancel, a south transept 




Franciscan Friary, Adare, Co. Limerick (south view) 

with -two eastern chapels, and a western aisle. The 
cloister is on the north side, and the conventual buildings 
can be well studied, several of them being in a good state 
of preservation. Among the most interesting features 
of the church are the remains of painted mural decora- 
tion which can still be observed. 

Corcomroe Abbey, situated in the limestone hills 
of Co. Clare, was founded by Domhnall 6 Briain about 



126 MUNSTER 

1182. The remains include a church and small cloister, 
with some domestic buildings to the east. The church 
is cruciform. The nave is plain, but the chancel and 
chapels contain interesting architectural details of the 
transitional period. 

Cathedrals 1 

The cathedral churches of the province of Munster 
are in many cases interesting buildings ; among them is 
the ancient cathedral on the rock of Cashel, which 
includes Cormac's chapel, perhaps the most important 
Romanesque building in Ireland. 

Taking the cathedrals in alphabetical order, the first 
is Aghadoe (Achadh da eo, the field of the two yew 
trees), the bishopric of which has for many centuries 
been united with that of Ardfert. The remains of the 
ecclesiastical buildings include the base of a round 
tower, another circular tower, and a small ruined church 
known as the cathedral. The latter is a small build- 
ing consisting of a nave and chancel ; there is a fine 
Romanesque doorway in the nave and two lancet 
windows in the chancel. 

Ardfert (Ardfearta, the height of the grave) is a small 
village near TraJee in Co. Kerry ; the cathedral is a build- 
ing of much interest ; though now roofless it is otherwise 
fairly complete. It was unroofed during the rebellion 
of 1641, but the transept was roofed and used as a parish 
church until 1871. The main body of the cathedral 
was probably built about the middle of the thirteenth 
century, being erected as a simple rectangle, but a large 

1 The writer has received assistance in writing notes on the 
Cathedrals from The Cathedral Churches of Ireland, 1 894, by the 
late T. M. Fallow, F.S.A. 



ARCHITECTURE 



127 



transept was added to the south side in later times, 
and it was probably at the same time that the main 
wall was embattled. The west doorway and its arcade 
is the most interesting portion of the building, being 
a fine specimen of Romanesque architecture. It is a 




Corcomroe Abbey, Co. Clare 

portion of an older Romanesque building, which formerly 
occupied the site of the present cathedral. 

Ardmore (the great height), Co. Waterford, became 
the seat of a bishopric in the fifth century, but it was 
absorbed into the see of Lismore at the end of the 
twelfth century, and, though among the ruins there is 
a building called the cathedral, it can hardly be con- 



128 MUNSTER 

sidered as a cathedral church. The ecclesiastical 
ruins at Ardmore are of considerable interest. They 
include a small stone oratory, the church known as the 
cathedral, a round tower, St Declan's well, and close 
to the latter the remains of a church known as Teampull 
Deisceirt (Church of the South). Of these the oratory, 
a small oblong building, is the oldest. It has been re- 
paired and has a modern slated roof, put up in 1716 A.D. 
by Dr Thomas Mills bishop of Waterford. - A stone 
engraved with an ogham inscription was built into the 
gable. The building measures 13 ft. 4 in. by 8 ft. 9 in., 
with walls about 2 J ft. thick ; the door is square-headed. 

The cathedral consists of a nave and chancel ; it has 
a remarkable series of panels on the outer west face, 
containing representations of various scriptural and 
other scenes. The pointed east window of the chancel 
has been built up ; the chancel arch is a fine piece of 
transitional architecture. An ogham inscribed stone 
was found in the north wall of the chancel. 

Only the western wall -and more eastern part of the 
south wall of Teampull Deisceirt remain, and the building 
does not contain any architectural features of interest. 

St Declan's well is close to the west end of the 
church ; it is covered by a small building supposed 
to have been erected about 1798. Three curious repre- 
sentations of the Crucifixion are built into it. This well 
was formerly a favourite resort, and twelve to fifteen 
thousand pilgrims are stated to have visited it at St 
Declan's pattern in 1841. 

The round tower stands about 66 ft. from the cathedral 
and is a very perfect specimen of these structures. It 
measures 95 ft. 4 in. in height, and is decorated with 
string-courses of sandstone, 



ARCHITECTURE 



129 



Cashel took its name from the stone fort (caiseal) 
which was erected there in the fifth century by a King 
of Munster. The round tower is the oldest of the remain- 
ing group of buildings, probably dating from the tenth 
century ; the small, but beautiful, Romanesque church, 
known as Cormac's chapel, which was founded by 
Cormac MacCarthaigh king of Desmond and bishop 
of Cashel, in 1127 A.D., comes next in date, while the 
cathedral belongs to the end of the thirteenth century. 
The round tower is now incorporated in the cathedral 
at the north-east angle of the north transept, there 
being a doorway into it from the triforium. The tower 
is about 85 ft. in height, with a circumference of 51 ft. ; 
the walls are about 4 ft. in thickness. It has a round- 
headed doorway nearly 12 ft. above the ground. 

Cormac's chapel is a beautiful specimen of Romanesque 
architecture ; it consists of a nave and chancel, with a 
square tower on each side in the position occupied by the 
transepts in later churches, making the plan of the chapel 
cruciform. The towers act as buttresses and support 
the thrust of the vaulting and of the heavy stone roof. 
The nave measures 29 ft. 8 in. by 17 ft. 8 in., and it is 
roofed by a barrel vault ; the chancel has a groined roof 
and measures 13 ft. 8 in. by 10 ft. 10 in. Both nave 
and chancel have crofts with a second stone roof above 
them. The south tower has a square embattled top, 
but this is a later addition. Originally it had a conical 
cap like the north tower. The chief interest of the chapel 
is its decoration, both inside and outside. The arcading 
is most elaborate, having panels which were painted 
with diaper work, while there were figure subjects on 
the walls and ceilings. The principal entrance is on 
the north, where the round-headed doorway consists 
m I 



130 MUNSTER 

of five orders with a high pediment over the arch. 
There are a varied and interesting series of carvings 
on the capitals, and over the doorway in the tympanum 
there is a curious figure of a centaur shooting a lion. 

The cathedral is an aisleless cruciform building with 
a square tower at the junction of the nave and choir. 
Its internal length is 166 ft. 9 in. and width 132 ft". 8 in. 
Cormac's chapel was connected with the east side of the 
south transept ; it was entered by a doorway opened in 
the west gable of the chapel in the transept. The nave 
of the cathedral is short compared to the choir, and it 
has been suggested that part of the length of the nave 
was cut off and is now occupied by the castellated 
structure at the west end. This latter structure was 
probably built about the end of the fourteenth cen- 
tury and used as a residence by the archbishop ; the 
central tower of the cathedral was probably built about 
the same time. In 1495 Garrett earl of Kildare burnt 
the cathedral, and when asked by Henjy VII his 
reason . for doing this, replied that he had burnt the 
cathedral because he thought the archbishop (David 
Creagh) was inside it. At the southern part of the 
enclosure are buildings, probably erected in the fifteenth 
century, for the Vicars Choral. The Vicars Choral were 
constituted a corporation for the purpose of owning 
land : they had a curious seal, having for its device the 
pipes of the organ, the organist, and eight choristers. 
The cathedral was damaged by Cromwell's soldiers ; but 
it was repaired in 1686, and restored in 1729 : in 1748 
Arthur Price, archbishop of Cashel, having unroofed and 
dismantled it, obtained an order from the Privy Council 
constituting the parish church of St John's, Cashel, 
the cathedral church of the diocese. Upon the dis- 



ARCHITECTURE 



131 



establishment of the Irish Church the buildings on the 
rock of Cashel were vested in the Irish Board of Works 
to be preserved as a National Monument. The modern 
cathedral of Cashel is built in the Georgian style ; it 
is a parallelogram in plan and has a tower with a spire 
at the west end. 

Cloyne (Cluain, a meadow) is a small town situated 
about 4 miles from Midleton, Co. Cork ; a bishopric 
was founded here in the sixth century by St Colman. 
The See of Cloyne has undergone various changes, 
having been united to Cork from 1431 until 1638 ; it 
was united to Cork and Ross from 1660 to 1678, and was 
a separate bishopric from 1678 to 1835, after which it 
was again united to Cork, forming the diocese of Cork, 
Cloyne, and Ross. The ancient cathedral is still in use : 
it is a low building cruciform in plan, and mainly of 
thirteenth century date. It appears never to have had 
a tower, the bells having been hung 'in the round tower 
which stands about 50 yards to the north-west of the 
cathedral. The woodwork screen which divides the 
nave from the choir is Georgian in type, and is of some 
interest. 

Cork (Cor each, a marsh) r the See of Cork was founded 
by St Finn Barr in the early part of the seventh century. 
The ancient cathedral was demolished in 1735, and a 
small Georgian church built to replace it. No account 
of the earlier cathedral exists. The Georgian cathedral 
was replaced in 1865 by the present cathedral designed 
by Mr W. Burgess, R.A., and consecrated in 1870. 
It is an imposing cruciform church built in the French- 
Gothic style. 

Emly (Imleach, a marshy place) : the See of Emly 
was founded by St Ailbhe in the fifth century. The 



132 MUNSTER 

ancient cathedral church was destroyed in 1828 and a 
poor modern building erected in its stead. 

Kilfenora (Cill Fionnabhrach, the church of Fionn- 
abhair) is about 18 miles from Ennis, Co. Clare. One 
of the smallest and poorest dioceses in Ireland, it 
has had no separate bishop since the seventeenth 
century. The cathedral is a small building consisting 
of a nave and choir with a bell turret at the west end 
of the nave ; there is a sacristy attached to the eastern 
walls of the choir. The nave is now used as the Pro- 
testant parish church ; the choir and sacristy are roof- 
less. The choir, which is the most interesting portion 
of the building, has a fine east window of three lights, 
with round-headed arches. 

Killaloe (Cill Dhd-Lua, the church of Da Lua), Co. 
Clare, is situated about 17 miles from Limerick. The 
See was founded by St Lua in the seventh century. 
The cathedral, which is *of thirteenth century date, is 
an aisleless, cruciform building, with a square, massive, 
central tower. An interesting Romanesque doorway 
is built into the western corner of the south wall of the 
nave ; it consists of an arch of four orders, with richly 
decorated carved shafts, capitals, and bases.. 

Limerick (Luimneach, a bare spot of land) : the See 
of Limerick is generally considered to have been founded 
as early as the fifth century. The interesting cathedral 
was probably erected during the twelfth and the 
thirteenth centuries. The earliest ground plan appears 
to have been in the form of a Latin Cross, but side aisles 
were added to the nave in the fourteenth and fifteenth 
century, which have obscured the original outline 
of the plan. An embattled square tower with four 
turrets stands at the west end. Limerick is unique 



ARCHITECTURE 133 

amongst the Irish cathedrals in possessing carved wood- 
work of the fifteenth century ; its stalls, with carved 
misereres, ornamented with various grotesque devices, 
resemble those which have been preserved in many 
English cathedrals. 

Lismore (Lios mor, the big fort), in Co. Waterford : 
the See of Lismore, founded by St Carthach in the seventh 
century, became one of the great schools of Ireland, 
and many notable names are connected with it, such 
as Cormac MacCarthaigh, and Malachias of Armagh. 
Lismore became " a famous and holy city, into the half 
of which (there being an asylum) no woman dare enter. 
It is filled with cells and holy monasteries, and a number 
of holy men are always in it. The religious flow to it 
from every part of Ireland, England, and Britain, anxious 
to remove thence to Christ." Most of the present 
cathedral dates from the seventeenth century, when it 
was rebuilt after it had almost been reduced to ruin by 
Edmond Fitzgibbon the White Knight. Some portions, 
such as the chancel arch and a few windows in the south 
transept, probably belong to the twelfth century. In 
plan the cathedral is a cruciform, aisleless church with a 
tower, crowned by a graceful spire at the west end. It 
contains an interesting sixteenth century altar tomb 
erected to the memory of John Magrath and his wife ; 
five early grave slabs inscribed in Irish are built into 
the west wall of the nave. 

The bishopric of Ross (Ros, a wood), some 10 miles 
from Skibbereen, Co. Cork, is supposed to have been 
founded about the sixth century ; it became a famous 
seat of learning. The See has been united with Cork 
since 1583, the style of the diocese being that of Cork, 
Cloyne, and Ross. The cathedral was almost entirely 



I 3 4 MUNSTER 

rebuilt during the seventeenth century ; it contains no 
architectural features of importance. 

The ancient cathedral of Waterford was founded 
by the Norsemen about 1050 A.D. From extant plans 
and illustrations it appears to have been a building of 
much interest. By an act of vandalism it was com- 
pletely pulled down in the latter part of the eighteenth 
century, when a new cathedral in the Georgian style 
was erected in its place. 

Churches 

The Oratory of Gallerus, situated Corkaguiney, Co. 
Kerry, is the most complete specimen of this type of 
building now to be seen in Ireland. It measures 23 ft. 
by 1 6 ft. externally ; it is 16 ft. in height; It is built 
of dry stones ; the doorway has inclined jambs. Near 
it is a stone pillar, ornamented with a cross in a circle, 
and incised with the name of Colum. 

At Kilmalkedar, at the foot of Mount Brandon, is an 
interesting church of probably twelfth century date. 
It is surrounded by the ruins of a small early monastic 
settlement. 

Another interesting church of early type is that of 
St Farannan at Donaghmore, between Clonmel and 
Fethard, Co. Tipper ary. It is a small Romanesque 
building of good proportions, decorated with carving 
and cut-stone. The carvings on the west doorway are 
especially fine. The church consists of an aisleless nave, 
and a small chancel ; it is built of uncoursed rubble con- 
taining large irregular stones with small ones between 
them.' There is a rubble vault over the chancel ; above 
this is a room with a small east window, entered by a 
doorway over the chancel. 



ARCHITECTURE 135 

The Church of St Peter and St Paul at Kilmallock, 
Co. Limerick, is interesting. It lies within the walls of 
the town and its chancel is used as the parish church. 
As well as an aisled nave, and chancel, there is a south 
transept, and attached to the north-east corner of the 
nave is a round tower about 50 ft. in height. The east 
window of the chancel has five lights. In the north aisle 
of the nave some interesting tombs are to be seen. The 
walls of the church were protected with battlements. * 

Castles 

Cahir Castle, Co. Tipperary, is a picturesque example 
of Tudor building : as it now stands, it presents archi- 
tecture of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, with 
the restorations carried out in 1840 by the Earl of 
GlengalL The castle, which occupies a large space, 
is irregular in outline : it consists of a square keep with 
extensive outworks, which form an inner and outer 
vallum. It became the property of the Butlers lords 
of Cahir, and still remains in the hands of their de- 
scendants in the female line. In 1599 it was described 
as the only famous castle of Ireland which was thought 
impregnable, a bulwark for Munster, and a safe retreat 
for all the agents of Spain and Rome. It was besieged 
by the Earl of Essex in 1599, by Lord Inchiquin in 1647, 
and a few years later by Cromwell. 

The so-called "Desmond" Castle at Adare, Co. 
Limerick, was probably erected on the site of a Norman 
mote. The present ruins include a portion of the keep, 
the hall, out-rooms, and gate- tower. The buildings show 
so few architectural features that it is difficult to deter- 
mine the dates of the various portions, but the keep 
may have been built in the thirteenth century. The 



136 



MUNSTER 



modern mansion of the Earl of Dunraven is an imposing 
structure in the Tudor style; it was built in 1850 of 
limestone obtained from the district. 

Carrick Castle, built in the fifteenth .century by 
Edmond Butler, who died in 1464, is an interesting 




The Keep, Desmond Castle, Adare, Co. Limerick 



specimen of a Tudor manor-house. It is a large quadri- 
lateral pile enclosing a central court. The ancient 
front is built in a castellated style ; it faces the Water- 
ford mountains to the south, commanding a view of the 
vale between Clonmel and Waterford. The Elizabethan 
front is considered to have been built by Thomas earl 
of Ormonde and Carrick, who died in 1614. The 



ARCHITECTURE 



137 



castle is "especially interesting on account of its north 
gallery, which is wainscotted with oak, and has stucco 
panels decorated with finely executed heraldic devices. 
The Marquis of Ormonde is the present owner of the 
castle. 

Limerick Castle is stated to have been built by King 




Thomond Bridge and King John's Castle, Limerick 

John. At each of the north angles is a round tower, 
and one remains at the south-west. Trie gateway 
is in the centre of the north curtain wall. A view of 
the castle circa 1611 shows it to have been roughly 
oblong in plan, with the gateway and two angle towers 
on the northern end, while at the southern end there 
was a tower at the south-west angle and a bulwark 
for holding cannon on the south corner. A large store- 
house was attached to the western curtain wall. The 



138 MUNSTER 

castle was besieged by the Confederate Catholics in 
1641, when, after a severe siege, the English garrison 
surrendered on terms. 

Waterford Castle, generally known as Reginald's 
tower, is stated to be of Danish origin. It is circular 
in plan and some 80 ft. high. A tablet placed over 
the main entrance records that the tower was built 
in 1003 by Reginald the Dane, that it was afterwards 
held as a fortress by Strongbow, that it was later used 
as a mint, and finally turned into a police barracks. 

The castle of Kiltinane, about 7 miles north of 
Clonmel, Co. Tipperary, on the River Glashauney, 
is a strong building standing on a rock over the river, 
into which there is a drop of 100 ft. on the eastern 
side. It consists of a quadrangular courtyard with 
three fortified towers, two of which form the modern 
house. The towers have walls of great thickness, 
and vaulted stone ceilings. The castle well has a 
passage leading to it down eighty-seven steps. This 
castle was one of the six granted by King John to 
Philip of Worcester. It afterwards passed into the 
possession of the Lords Dunboyne, and was held by 
them at the time of its capture by Cromwell in 1649. 
Later it became the property of Richard Staper, who in 
1669 sold it to Peter Cooke, by whose descendants it 
is still occupied. 

About 2 miles east of Clonmel is a mansion built in 
the Tudor style, with quadrangular windows divided by 
stone mullions. It was probably erected by Alexander 
Power in the reign of James I. It is known as Tickencor 
House. 

In the same neighbourhood are the remains of the 
castle of Derrinlaur. The name Doire an lair signifies the 



ADMINISTRATION 139 

Middle-oak-wood, the neighbouring hills having been for 
many centuries covered with woods. The castle was 
probably one of the strongholds of the Butlers. 

The remains of the ancient walls and the castel- 
lated houses at Kilmallock, Co. Limerick, are also worthy 
of mention. 

ADMINISTRATION 

MUNSTER, the largest province in Ireland, has a popula- 
tion of 1,035,495, and contains three of the six County 
Boroughs, viz., Cork, Waterford, and Limerick. These 
three County Boroughs have each a Mayor (Cork, a 
Lord Mayor) and Municipal Council, with their several 
committees. The county areas are under the control 
of the County Councils, which, with the other County 
Councils, were established by the Local Government 
(Ireland) Act of 1898. The Council, the members of 
which hold office for three years, is elected by the county 
electoral divisions, and performs numerous important 
duties, such as maintaining the main roads of the 
county, providing and managing lunatic asylums, etc. 
It has power to make bye-laws and to oppose Bills 
in Parliament and to prosecute or defend legal pro- 
ceedings necessary for the promotion or protection of 
the interests of the county. The County Borough 
Councils are ." administrative counties " and have 
similar powers to the County Councils. Urban sanitary 
authorities are called Urban District Councils, and 
rural sanitary districts have Rural District Councils. 
These Councils have wide powers and responsibilities 
in regard to public health and other matters concern- 
ing the public good. 



140 



MUNSTER 



Particulars as to the County Borough and County areas 
are set out in the subjoined table : 







Area on 




Number 




Popu- 


which, the 


Valua- 


of Mem- 




lation 
(Census 


! Valuation 
! has been 


tion on 
ist March 


bers of 
Parlia- 




of 
1911)- 


deter- 
mined. 


1914. 


ment (see 
Note). 


(I) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 






Acres 







County Boroughs 










"Cork . 


76,673 


2,685 


189,470 


2 


Limerick . 


38,518 


2,386 


75,8i9 


I 


Water ford . 


27,464 


1,237 


50,142 


I 


Maritime Counties 










Clare 










Rural Districts 


94,094 


795,355 


313,701 


1 2 


Urban Districts 


9,138 


i, 800 


12,987 


/ 


Cork 




! 






Rural Districts 


274,358 


1 ,840', 1 96 


1,034,215 


* 7 


Urban Districts 


41,703 


9,281 


89,477 


I 7 


" Kerry 










Rural Districts 


140,186 


1,165,094 


283,604 


\ 4 


Urban Districts 


19,5^5 


4,415 


31,533 


1 4 


Waterford 










Rural Districts 


5 I ,5 2 5 


451,323 


260,028 


I 2 


Urban Districts 


4,977 


1,360 


8,778 




Inland Counties 










Limerick 










Rural Districts 


104,551 


667,519 


476,905 


2 


Tipperary(N.R.) 








| 


Rural Districts 


51,765 


488,514 


257,408 


1 


Urban Districts 


11,116 


4,448 


21,144 




Tipperary (S.R.) 
Rural Districts 


64,650 


553,023 


37 ,336 


4 


Urban Districts 


24,902 


4,669 


42,738 


; 



Note. The boundaries of Parliamentary Divisions are not 
coterminous with local administrative areas. 



ADMINISTRATION 



141 



EDUCATION 

The province is well supplied with educational 
agencies, from those of university type to elementary 
schools working under the Board of National Education. 
The University College (formerly Queen's College) of 
Cork is one of the constituent colleges of the National 




University College, Cork 

University, and has made a notable advance in recent 
years. Situated in an elevated and picturesque position 
in the western suburb of the city, it possesses charming 
buildings which were erected in 1849 on * ne s ^ e f tne 
old Gill Abbey, from designs by Sir William Deane. 
There is a spacious examination hall, a library and 
museum. More recently the beautiful Honan Memorial 
Chapel has been added. The number of students, the 
majority of whom are Roman Catholics, has increased 



i 4 2 MUNSTER 

steadily during the last fifteen years. New engineering 
laboratories have been equipped, and the College is 
virtually a university for the southern province, though 
it does not enjoy this status, but is a constituent 
college of the National University of Ireland. 

The provision for scientific and technical education 
is no less complete, and has developed greatly since the 
establishment of the Department of Agriculture and 
Technical Instruction in 1899. Under the direction 
of this Department of State the Technical Instruction 
Committees of the counties of the province have adopted 
schemes of technical instruction which not only provide 
specialised instruction in the smaller towns, but also by 
the agency of numerous well-trained itinerant instructors 
carry instruction in manual work in wood, farriery, 
domestic economy, art, home industries, etc., to the 
remotest districts. In some local centres classes in 
domestic economy are conducted by nuns who have been 
trained in courses specially organised for the purpose. 
The value of this teaching has been very marked, and it 
was certainly very much needed. No less marked has 
been the educational work of the Agricultural Committees 
of the County Councils, who, under their schemes, have 
carried instruction in agriculture, horticulture, dairying, 
poultry-rearing and such-like subjects to all parts of 
these southern counties. Indeed, it is naturally in the 
rural areas that the activities of the Committees of 
Agriculture have their full scope, while in the urban 
centres technical education other than agricultural 
finds its opportunity. In the city of Cork, for example, 
there is the fine Crawford Municipal Technical Institute. 
The Crawford Municipal School of Science and Art 
occupied the site of the old Custom-house. . A fine 



ADMINISTRATION 143 

building was opened in 1885, having been restored and 
enlarged at a cost of about 20,000 by the late Mr W. H 
Crawford, It provided accommodation for classes in 
Science and for a School of Art, and had besides picture 
and statuary galleries and a public library. With the 
great forward movement in technical education which 
began with the present century this building was found 




Crawford Municipal Technical Institute, Cork 

to be inadequate to the needs of technical education, 
and during the last few years a handsome building 
has been erected and equipped in Sharman Crawford 
Street, with splendid engineering, chemical and physical 
laboratories, as well as class-rooms for various techno- 
logical subjects and 'for domestic training. The School 
of Art, which, in addition to providing a general art 
training, has for many years done valuable work in 
training designers and workers for the lace industry, is 
carried on in the older building. The growing demand 



144 MUNSTER 

for commercial training led the City Technical Committee 
to secure and adapt premises in the Mall, where there 
now exists a largely attended and otherwise successful 
School of Commerce. The municipality also largely 
supports the School of Music. A scheme of co-ordina- 
tion exists between University College and the Technical 
Institute, and engineering students of the former receive 
instruction in mechanical engineering at the Institute. 

About a mile to the west of the city of Cork is the 
Munster Dairy Institute, a fine building which, sur- 
rounded by farm land, was reconstructed in 1876, and was 
known as the Munster Agricultural and Dairy School. 
It is now under the direct management of the Depart- 
ment, and serves to provide a thorough training in 
agricultural and domestic work for women students. 
The course includes dairy work, poultry rearing, garden- 
ing, and domestic economy, and the School serves 
as a training-ground for teachers of certain of these 
subjects. 

Waterford has also a flourishing Technical Institute. 
For many years its operations were retarded by unsuit- 
able premises, but a few years ago the Technical Com- 
mittee, under the chairmanship of the late bishop, 
the most Reverend Dr Sheehan, who rendered conspicu- 
ous service to the cause of education, undertook the 
erection of a new school which is more adequate to the 
needs of this important town. In addition to the usual 
courses in Art, Science, and Technology, there is a Day 
Trades Preparatory School for boys preparing for an 
industrial career. Similarly in Limerick, after working 
under disadvantageous conditions for long years in the 
Athenaeum and elsewhere, the Technical Committee 
prepared plans for, and a few years ago erected, a 




^SHJ* 




I 



146 



MUNSTER 



handsome Technical Institute, which is providing higher 
instruction in Science, Art, and Technology. 

Some of the smaller towns in Munster have also shown 
great progress! veness in the matter of technical educa- 
tion. Towns such as Queenstown (now Cobh), Tralee, and 




Training College, Limerick 

Clonmel have made noteworthy progress. Queenstown 
(Cobh), with the neighbouring dockyards at Haulbow- 
line, has developed elementary instruction in engineer- 
ing, though its buildings are still inadequate to its needs. 
Tralee has made amazing progress. A few years ago 
excellent work was carried on in old builders' workshops, 
to which entrance was gained through a yard bearing 
the uninviting notice, " All Funeral Requisites Promptly 



ADMINISTRATION 147 

Supplied/' and only during the last year or two has a 
dignified and adequate building, providing for evening 
courses of instruction and a Day Trades Preparatory 
School, been erected for this busy and thriving western 
town. But in this case, as in that of all the others 
mentioned, considerable difficulty has been experienced. 
The Act of 1899, which provided a sum of 55,000 
per annum for technical education, made no provision 
for buildings. Suitable buildings were almost non- 
existent. It has then become necessary in all the 
instances named to borrow money for the new build- 
ings, the interest and repayment of which forms a 
heavy burden on the annual income of the committees, 
whose operations must of necessity be correspondingly 
restricted. Tipperary has a small school managed by 
a joint committee of the urban and rural districts. 

There are two training colleges for national teachers in 
Munster one for male teachers the De La Salle Train- 
ing College at Waterford and one for female teachers 
at the Laurel Hill Convent at Limerick. Both colleges 
are lodged in excellent buildings. 

The space available here will not serve to enter into 
any details respecting the secondary schools in the 
province, but it may be noted that they are very generally 
worked under the rules of the Intermediate Education 
Board. They are denominational in character, and 
Catholic schools are commonly conducted by a religious 
order. Near Cashel there is the large and important 
Secondary School known as Rockwell College. Other 
schools are conducted by the orders of the Christian 
Brothers and Presentation Brothers. Standing high 
above the city of Cork, on Our Lady's Mount, is the 
Christian Brothers Schools. These schools are remark- 



148 



MUNSTER 



able in many respects. They possess fine physical 
and chemical laboratories, workshops (with power) 
for manual work in wood and metal, an extensive 
school museum, and other features bearing evidence of 
the enthusiasm and unselfish devotion of the late Brother 
Burke, to whom is due in large measure the success of 




Ursuline Convent, Waterford 



the schools and the direction of the education, which is 
well designed to fit the pupils for a future of useful- 
ness. The Christian Brothers College is a smaller in- 
stitution dealing with senior pupils. A noteworthy 
Secondary School for girls is the Ursuline Con vent F at 
Waterford, which has a successful department for 
domestic teaching. There are excellent Protestant 
schools of secondary type both for boys and girls.. 



INDUSTRIES AND MANUFACTURES 149 
INDUSTRIES & MANUFACTURES 

MUNSTER is a dairying and cattle-raising province, 
and its interests, speaking generally, are agricultural. 
Nevertheless it has a number of flourishing manufactures, 
and the history of many of these are full of instruction. 
Perhaps the oldest and most permanent of these is 
the textile industry mainly the weaving of woollen 
goods. It is not generally known, however, that the 
growing of flax and the spinning of this into yarns by 
hand was general throughout the county of Cork two 
hundred years ago. In the middle of the eighteenth 
century linen yarns were exported from the county 
to England, and there is extant an interesting letter dated 
1 8th April 1752 from a London firm addressed " To the 
Yarn Makers of the Citty and County of Cork or else- 
where," asking for yarn. Flax was grown in West; 
Cork (Dunmanway, Clonakilty, etc.). In 1851 there were 
no less than 5991 acres under flax in Munster, while in 
1915 there were only 259 acres, of which 257 acres were 
in the county of Cork. There are three scutching mills, 
two worked by water and one by steam. In 1662 the 
manufacture of linen cloth was started in Charleville. 
About 1750 the manufacture began to flourish in West 
Cork. In that year there was a spinning school at 
Youghal. In 1726 the manufacture of sailcloth was 
carried on extensively at Douglas, near Cork. It is 
noteworthy that the first mill for the spinning of flax 
by machinery in Ireland was started in the city of Cork 
about the year 1800. It contained 212 spindles for 
the spinning of coarse, dry-spun yarns suitable for the 
manufacture of canvas and sailcloth, which were pro- 



150 MUNSTER 

duced in considerable quantity in the city and county. 
It was not until close on thirty years after that the 
first movement was made to establish the trade in Belfast. 
It has since almost died out in the south, but has been 
revived by the Cork Spinning and Weaving Company, 
Ltd., of Millfield, which .now employs over 900 persons 
in the spinning and weaving of flax for home markets. 

In 1810 a cotton mill was erected near Bandon. 

But it is the woollen industry which is really native, 
and which, in spite of many vicissitudes and much 
repressive legislation, has survived, is flourishing to-day, 
and gives promise of great development. Ireland was 
famous for its woollen industry and trade as far back as 
the twelfth century several centuries before the English 
industry. In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries Irish 
friezes and serges were known and esteemed in the 
English markets, and in the fourteenth century were 
famed in Naples and other parts of the Continent. 
The early instruments of manufacture were, of course, 
the distaff and spindle, the hand-combs and the hand- 
loom. The shearing of the sheep was done by men, 
but the spinning and weaving were carried out by the 
women, who clothed themselves and their families with 
excellent, if rough, native cloth. But the growing trade 
suffered serious reverses. In the reigns of Henry VIII. 
and Elizabeth the jealousy of English manufacturers 
led to a systematic boycott of the Irish trade, which 
suffered considerably, and Irish woollen-workers were 
driven from Ireland to the, Continent. By the amended 
Navigation Act of 1663 Ireland was prohibited exporta- 
tion to English colonies. The trade, however, was 
partially re-established, and during the administration 
of Ormonde a mill was started in Clonmel and carried 



INDUSTRIES AND MANUFACTURES 151 

on by five hundred Walloon families, to whom were given 
land and houses on long and easy leases. The industry 
developed in Cork and elsewhere, and in the latter part 
of the seventeenth century expanded into an important 
export trade. As a result English woollen manufacturers 
became alarmed at Irish competition and took steps 
to stop it. In 1698 both Houses of Parliament addressed 
William III. upon the growing manufacture of cloth 
in Ireland and sought to have it stopped. A Bill was 
forced through the Irish House of Commons by which 
duties on all exports of drapery were imposed, ranging 
from 10 per cent, to 25 per cent, ad valorem. In the 
same year the English House of Commons passed a 
Bill forbidding exportation from Ireland to England 
or elsewhere of her woollen manufactures. The results 
were lamentable and the next half century was a period 
of extreme poverty. The recovery of the industry has 
been slow, due probably to the fact that those who 
brought about its re-establishment prior to 1698 were 
not native Irish, but Protestant immigrants from 
England, France, and Holland, who left the country 
owing to the suppression of their industry. They carried 
their skill and accumulated experience with them, and 
so the industry continued to wane. The recovery of 
this much-tried industry is comparatively recent. In 
the woollen and worsted spinning and weaving there 
were nine factories in 1853, and forty-three in 1863. 
There are to-day about eighty-five woollen factories in 
Ireland. Among the oldest of these is Messrs Martin 
Mahony & Bros., Ltd., of Blarney, who were established 
in the middle of the eighteenth century, and whose 
first power-looms were established in 1863. They 
have now over one hundred looms at work and a 



152 



MUNSTER 



large spinning plant. They employ nearly six hundred 
hands, and export their woollen and worsted goods to 
the Colonies and various European countries. Messrs 
O'Brien Bros., Ltd., of Douglas, near Cork, employ over 
four hundred hands in the manufacture of tweeds, 
while Morrogh Bros. & Co., of Douglas, also employ a 




Twisting Machines in a Woollen Factory 

large number of hands. There are several other smaller 
but growing industries, and it is believed that the recent 
establishment of an Irish Woollen Manufactures Associa- 
tion may have an important influence on the develop- 
ment of this truly native industry. The manufacture 
of hand-woven goods is still carried on largely on the 
western seaboard. 

In the cities, of Cork and Waterford there are large 



INDUSTRIES AND MANUFACTURES 153 

bacon-curing industries. In Cork also is the large 
clothing factory of Messrs Lyons & Co., the important 
chemical works of Messrs Harrington, and the two large 
breweries of Messrs Beamish & Crawford and Messrs 
Murphy. Tanning, which was so important an Irish 
industry in the past, is also carried on. 

There are in the province over one hundred and. seventy 
corn mills, of which over eighty are in the county of Cork. 
It is interesting to note that forty-seven of these are 
driven by water power, while eleven others employ 
both water and steam. 

Cork is an important centre of distribution of dairy 
and other agricultural produce, and the Cork Butter 
Exchange, situated on the north side of the city, is one 
of the largest in existence. 

There are some shipbuilding and- engineering works, 
and the most important of these is the Royal Dock- 
yard at Haulbowline, in Queenstown (Cobh) Harbour, 
which gives employment to about a thousand men. 
The harbour itself is one of the finest in the world, and 
in pre-war days was a calling-place for transatlantic 
liners. It provides anchorage with 20 ft. of water 
alongside the jetties, and vessels of over 24 ft. draught 
can discharge at the deep-water quays. 

The shipping industry is of great importance, and Cork 
has over four miles of quays. The principal trade is 
in grain, timber, coal, live stock, provisions, and whisky. 
Its interests are watched over by the Cork Incorporated 
Chamber of Commerce and Shipping. Reference must 
also be made to the Cork Industrial Development 
Association, which grew out of the Cork International 
Exhibition of 1902, which served a valuable end in 
drawing attention to the potentialities of Irish industries. 



154 MUNSTER 

In the year following the exhibition some of the citizens 
of Cork formed themselves into an Association, and a 
year or two later summoned the first All- Ireland 
Industrial Conference, which has been followed by several 
others, to the great encouragement of the industries 
of the country. 

Limerick has a small harbour, the accommodation of 
which is increased T?y the provision of a floating dock, 
810 ft. long, and a graving dock of 428 ft. in length. 
The trade is mainly imports of wheat, maize, coal, and 
timber. There is a small export trade. The city is 
noteworthy industrially on account of its large bacon- 
curing establishments. It is stated that the three large 
establishments of Messrs Shaw, Matheson, and Denny 
together slaughter some ten thousand pigs a week. 
One of the principal industries also is the condensed 
milk factory of Messrs Cleeve. Near by at Adare, the 
seat of the Earl of Dunraven, interesting experiments 
have been for some time in progress on the growing of 
tobacco, and excellent cigarettes are manufactured in 
the village from tobacco thus grown. 

Scattered throughout the province are home industries, 
some of which have attained to some importance. 
Principal among these is the making of lace. Flat 
Point Lace was first introduced into Ireland by the Sisters 
of the Presentation Convent at Youghal as a means of 
assisting the sufferers from the famine in the years 
1847-50. It was founded on Italian models, but has 
been so much modified and enriched that it may be 
considered an Irish lace, and the industry has been 
greatly developed subsequently, most beautiful specimens 
of work having been produced both here and in the 
convent of Kenmare, A similar impulse originated 



INDUSTRIES AND MANUFACTURES 155 

the industries carried on with such success in the in- 
dustrial department of St Joseph's Convent School 
at Kinsale, where lace-making is supplemented by 
drawn-thread work, embroidery, machine knitting, etc. 

In Limerick, too, home industries have been en- 
couraged, and " Limerick lace " is widely known. The 
industry was introduced nearly ninety years ago by an 
Englishman named Walker, who brought over a group 
of teachers and started lace-making in a disused store 
at Mount Kennet, the site of the present docks at 
Limerick. The industry took firm root. The Irish 
girls proved apt pupils, and in course of time large 
numbers of women and girls were employed. It 
flourished exceedingly during the first decade of the 
reign of Queen Victoria, and as many as six hundred 
women and girls found employment. The industry 
declined after the death of the Prince Consort and 
the consequent period of Court mourning, to which the 
decline in the trade was attributed. Doubtless also 
the introduction of inexpensive machine-made lace 
good in design and execution made in the English 
midlands was a powerful cause. Some thirty years 
ago efforts were made by Mrs Vere O'Brien to revive 
the industry, and with some success. Classes were 
established in George Street and at the Good Shepherd 
Convent, while lace was also made by several local firms. 
It is much to be regretted that the outbreak of war 
struck yet another blow at a struggling industry which 
produces so beautiful and artistic a product and on which 
so much voluntary labour has been bestowed. 

Hand-spinning and weaving is still carried on as a 
home industry in some parts of the province, but the 
disadvantages of this mode of production led to the 



156 MUNSTER 

workers being gathered together under one roof where 
this was possible, and the weaving industry of the 
Convent of Mercy, Skibbereen, established by the 
Bishop of Ross, claims to have been the first to estab- 
lish weaving within the walls of an Irish convent in 
recent times. The example thus set was followed by 
Queenstown (Cobh), Kilkenny, Carrick-on-Suir, and 
Stradbally (Waterford). Later it was, with other in- 
dustries such as machine hosiery-knitting, embroidery, 
vestment-making, etc., started by the nuns of the Con- 
vent of Mercy at Gort (Co. Galway), and developed with 
considerable enthusiasm. 

It is not possible to enumerate the various efforts 
made to stimulate home industries, but the valuable work 
of Miss Spring Rice at Foynes calls for mention. 

AGRICULTURE 

Munster is essentially a dairying and cattle-raising 
province, and prior to the war tillage had continuously 
decreased, while the number of cattle had correspondingly 
increased. The county of Limerick is famous for its 
fine pasture-land, and dairy farming is carried on ex- 
tensively in the rich " Golden Vale " which constitutes 
a large part of the county. Cork too, especially the 
eastern portions of the county, has a rich soil. In the 
year 1851 there were 732,294 acres under corn crops 
and 403,973 acres under green crops in Munster. In 
1915 these areas had been reduced to 284,946 and 260,304 
areas respectively. At the same time the acreage 
of hay, which was 372,072 in 1851, had more than 
doubled by 1915. The great decline was in the amount 
of wheat grown. There was a great decline in the area 
of potatoes, but a large increase in cabbage. In 1918 



INDUSTRIES AND MANUFACTURES 157 

mainly through the operation of the Compulsory Tillage 
Regulations, the area under corn crops was brought 
up to 420,271 acres, while the area under green crops had 
been raised to 286,210 acres. 



T 




Creamery, Tipperary 



There were in the province in 1918 as many as 1,702,194 
cattle, 174,063 horses, and 709,963 sheep. 

In the matter of forestry it may be said that Munster 
has over 94,000 acres under forest trees, of which nearly 
25,000 acres are in County Cork and nearly 24,000 in 
County Tipperary. As many as 293 acres were planted 
in the year ending 3ist May 1915 with 649,459 trees, 
mainly conifers. In the same period 904 acres were 
cleared and over half a million trees felled. 



158 MUNSTER 

FISHERIES 

The sea and inland fisheries are of considerable 
value. In the seventeenth century pilchard fishing 
was general in West Cork and Kerry, Flemish vessels 
loading cargoes, whilst pirates found it worth while 
to watch for these vessels at sea. Pilchards were on 
the coast in the early half of the nineteenth century, 
but about 1880 they suddenly abandoned it. Hake 
also was taken in quantity inshore, and are now fished 
in from 50 to 200 fathoms from the Kerry coast, 
the catches being landed at Milford or Fleetwood. 
Spaniards had fishing stations on the coast in the six- 
teenth century, and many islands and bays on the 
south-west coast are still called " Spanish/' Mackerel 
is the main southern fishery, and there is a spring and 
autumn mackerel fishery almost exclusively off the coast 
of Munster. The capture during the spring fishery of 
1915 was the smallest for many years. The bulk of 
the fish were landed at Baltimore (where there is a 
Fishery School), amounting to 23,512 cwts., and at 
Valentia, amounting to 20,837 cwts., of a total value 
of 21,168. That landed at other centres were of a value 
of 5788. When the spring mackerel fishing flourished 
about 1865 Kinsale was the centre, and large craft 
flocked thither from the Isle of Man, from Lowestoft, 
Cornwall, and France. The local fishermen were at 
first unprepared, and the Baroness Burdett-Coutts made 
a loan of 10,000 for the Baltimore district to enable 
the Cape Clear fishermen to get modern boats. This 
loan was repaid. The autumn mackerel fishery of 1915 
was the worst recorded, and yielded about 53,000 cwts., 
a decrease of 14,000 cwts. on the figure for the previous 



INDUSTRIES AND MANUFACTURES 159 

season. The amount realised, however, increased from 
26,000 to nearly 33,000. In addition to the above, 
there was in the year referred to about 148 tons 
of other fish, principally plaice, black soles, and ray 
landed at Dingle (Kerry). There are oyster fisheries 
in Tralee, Kinsale, and Waterford, and a mussel 
fishery at Castlemaine Harbour (Kerry). The sea- 




Lax Weir Salmon Fisheries 



weed, which on burning yields " kelp," a source of 
potash, is collected from the western coast and the 
kelp exported. About 934 tons was exported from 
County Clare in 1915. 

The inland fisheries are widely known for the 
catch of salmon and trout. These fisheries are under 
the control of Boards of Conservators. The number 
of rod licences decreased during the war, but in 
1913 no fewer than 3526 were issued for the whole 
country, of which a considerable proportion were for 



i6o 



MUNSTER 



the southern province. Lismore, Waterford, Kenmare, 
Waterville, Killarney, and Limerick are the better- 
known districts for 
salmon fishing. Grants 
are made by the Depart- 
ment through their 
Fisheries Branch to the 
various Boards of Con- 
servators to assist in 
the improvement and 
protection of the inland 
fisheries. There is a 
very old and important 
salmon fishery in the 
neighbourhood of 
Limerick, the great 
"Lax weir" on the 
Shannon reminding us 
of the ancient Scandi- 
navian interest in Irish 
fisheries. The illustra- 
tions show the Lax weir 

Salmon Crib, Lax Weir and one of the "Cribs" 
which are fixed in a 

vertical position in the gaps of the weir. The fish 
having passed through the narrow vertical opening in 
the crib cannot return. 




DISTINGUISHED MUNSTERMEN 161 

DISTINGUISHED 

MUNSTERMEN 

MUNSTER is particularly rich in men of mark. Cork, 
it has been claimed, stands first among Irish counties 
in intellectual and artistic achievement. The difficulty 
of making a selection of representative men for Munster 
has been accordingly considerable. To her, more 
than any other province belongs pre-eminence for the 
number and quality of her native Gaelic bards. Space 
permits only the inclusion of a few great names ; but 
Aonghus Fionn O'Daly, Geoffrey Fionn O'Daly, Egan 
O'Rahilly, David O'Bruadair, Tadhg MacBrody, Pierce 
Fitzgerald, Pierce Ferriter, John O'Tuomy, not to men- 
tion many others, are household names among the Gael. 
Nor are great scholars and divines wanting. One has 
only to mention Peter Lombard (d. 1625), Stephen 
White (d. 1647), Geoffrey of Waterford (d. about 1300), 
Thomas Hibernicus (fl. 1306), Thomas Carve (d. 1672). 
In the volume for Ireland will be found notices of 
Robert Boyle, Daniel O'Connell, William Wallace, and 
Daniel Maclise. 

ALLMAN, George James, F.R.S. (1812-98), zoologist 
and botanist, was born at Cork. He was Professor of 
Botany in Dublin University from 1844-54, and in Edin- 
burgh from 1855-70, where he was also keeper of the 
Natural History Museum. He was President of the 
British Association in 1879. He is noted for his brilliant 
investigations into the Ccelenterata and Polyzoa. His 
most important works are A Monograph of the Fresh- 
water Polyzoa (1856) and A Monograph of the Gymno- 
blastic Hydroids (1871-72). 
m L 



162 MUNSTER 

BARRY, James, R.A. (1741-1806), the painter, was 
born at Cork, and studied under West in Dublin. 
When a young man he attracted the notice of Edmund 
Burke, who became his friend, and enabled him to 
complete his studies in France and Italy. His great 




John Philpot Curran 

achievement was the series of colossal historical paintings 
illustrating the progress of Human Culture, with which 
he decorated the walls of the Society of Arts in 
London. His independent nature involved him in con- 
stant disputes, and led to his expulsion in 1799 from 
the Professorship of Painting in the Royal Academy. 



DISTINGUISHED MUNSTERMEN 163 

BRENDAN, Saint (484-577), called the Voyager, to 
distinguish him from Brendan of Birr, his fellow-student 
at Clonard, and, like him, one of the twelve apostles of 
Ireland, was born at Tralee. The Navigatio, with which 
his name is associated, was one of the most popular 
legends of the Middle Ages, and was no doubt based on 
an actual voyage to some of the islands in the Atlantic. 
He founded the monastery of Clonfert about 553, 
and visited Columba at lona in 563. 

CURRAN, John Philpot (1750-1817), orator and states- 
man, was born at Newmarket, Co. Cork. He sat in 
the Irish Parliament from 1783-97, and was a strong 
advocate of Reform and Catholic emancipation. It 
was at the bar, however, that he gained his great repu- 
tation as an orator and wit. He defended Archibald 
Hamilton Rowan in 1793, Wolfe Tone in 1798, and 
others of the United Irishmen. He was Master of the 
Rolls from 1806-14. His last years, clouded by domestic 
unhappiness, were spent in London, where he died. He 
is buried in Glasnevin. 

DAVIS, Thomas Osborne (1814-45), poet and patriot, 
was born at Mallow, Co. Cork, his father, an army 
surgeon, being of Welsh origin. He was educated at 
Trinity College, and for a time practised at the bar. An 
ardent member of the Reform Association, he helped 
to start The Nation newspaper (1842), in which most 
of his writings appeared. When the New Ireland 
movement was founded, Davis became its natural 
leader. He was the loftiest and most inspiring of 
the national writers. His finest poems are the Lament 
for Owen Roe O'Neill, Fontenoy, and The Sack of 
Baltimore. 

DOWDEN, Edward (1843-1913), Shakespearean scholar 



164 MUNSTER 

and critic, was born at Cork. When only twenty-four 
he became Professor of English Literature in Dublin 
University, which post he held until his death. He 
published many volumes of critical essays and biog- 
raphies, but his fame rests on his Shakespere . . . his 
Mind and Art (1875) and his Life of Shelley (1886). 

GOUGH, Sir Hugh (1779-1869), First Viscount and 
Field-Marshal, was born at Limerick. He is said to have 
commanded in more general actions than any British 
general with the exception of Wellington. He served 
through the Peninsular War, and the China War (1842), 
for his services in which he was created a baronet. 
As commander-in-chief in India he defeated the 
Mahrattas (1843). After his successful conduct of the 
Sikh War (1845-49) he was raised to the peerage and 
granted an annual pension of 4000. 

GRIFFIN, Gerald (1803-40), novelist and poet, was 
born at Limerick. He is best known by his novel The 
Collegians, which was dramatised by Dion Boucicault as 
The Colleen Bawn in 1828, and his Tales of the Munster 
Festivals. He wrote many ballads and lyrics of great 
delicacy and beauty : Eileen Aroon, Gile Machree, and 
Lines to a Seagull are favourites. He became a Christian 
Brother in 1838. 

HARVEY, William Henry (1811-66), botanist, was 
born at Summerville, Co. Limerick. His discovery, 
when a youth, of a new moss led to a life-long acquaint- 
ance with Sir William Hooker. In 1835 he left Ireland 
for Capetown, where he succeeded his brother as Colonial 
Treasurer, returning home in 1842 owing to ill-health, 
which dogged him throughout life. In 1844 ne became 
Curator of the Dublin University Herbarium, and in 
1856 Professor of Botany. He was the greatest Irish 




Field-Marshal Viscount Gough 



166 MUNSTER 

botanist, and the leading authority on Algae. He 
published the Flora of several continents. His best- 
known works are Manual of British Alga (1841) and 
Phycologia Britannica : a History of British Seaweeds 

(1846-51). 

HINCKS, Edward, D.D. (1792-1866), the Egyptologist, 
was born at Cork. He was a Fellow of Trinity College, 
but, passed over by the university, retired to a living 
in KiUyleagh, Co. Down. In this obscure parish he 
laboured for forty years, and won European fame by 
his investigations into the language of the Egyptian 
hieroglyphics and the cuneiform inscriptions. Among 
many brilliant discoveries, the determination of the 
numerals and the names Sennacherib and Nebuchad- 
nezzar are due to him. His work appeared in the 
Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy. He was 
awarded the Prussian order Pour le merite. 

HOGAN, John (1800-58), the eminent sculptor, was 
born at Tallow, Co. Waterford. In 1824 he was sent 
by friends to Rome to perfect his studies, and there he 
married and settled down for twenty-four years, when 
the revolution drove him back to Ireland. The last 
ten years of his life were spent in Dublin. Among his 
chief works are the Drunken Faun, which won 'the 
admiration of the great Thorwaldsen, the Dead Christ 
in the Carmelite Church, Clarendon Street, and the 
statues of Drummond, O'Connell, Dams, and Bishop 
Doyle. 

KEATING, Geoffrey, D.D. (1570-1650), historian, born at 
Burgess in Tipperary, of Norman descent, and educated 
at Bordeaux, is perhaps the best-known name in modern 
native Irish literature. His History of Ireland (Forus 
Feasa ar &rinn), compiled from the oldest manuscript 



DISTINGUISHED MUNSTERMEN 167 

sources, is his chief work. An English paraphrase of it 
by O'Conor (1723) was until recent times the principal 
authority for most writers on early Irish history. The 
Irish text, widely circulated in MS. copies down to the 
Famine, has since been carefully edited and translated. 
Another well-known work by Keating, which now ranks 
as a classic, is his Three Shafts of Death (Tri Bior- 
ghaoithe an Bhais). He is one of the greatest 
masters of Irish prose, and at the same time a poet 
of distinction. 

KICKHAM, Charles Joseph (1828-82), poet and novel- 
ist, was born at Mullinahone in Tipperary. One of the 
leaders of the Fenian movement, he was sentenced 
to fourteen years' imprisonment in 1865. His fame 
rests on his powerful novel Knocknagow. 

MERRYMAN, Bryan (1747-1805), poet, was born at 
Clondagach near Ennis, and was by profession a school- 
master. His chief work, Cuirt an Meadhon Oidhche 
(The Midnight Court), a satirical poem of great power, 
is generally regarded as the most original product of 
modern Gaelic literature. It has been elaborately 
edited and translated into German by the late Ludwig 
Stern, Director of the Imperial Library, Berlin. 

MULREAPY, William, R.A. (1786-1863), genre painter, 
was born at Ennis, Co. Clare. When a boy, his father, 
who was a leather breeches maker, removed to London. 
The great sculptor Banks, discerning the boy's talent, 
gave him drawing lessons in his studio, and afterwards 
he entered the schools of the Royal Academy. He 
rapidly attained a foremost place in his profession. His 
Idle Boys procured his election as A.R.A. in 1915, and 
within a year he was made a full member, a rare dis- 
tinction. His work is distinguished by the perfect 



168 MUNSTER 

drawing, minute and exquisite finish, and brilliant 
colouring. Usually only one of his small pictures was 
exhibited annually. Most of them have become the 
property of the nation, and are now in South Kensing- 
ton. The most celebrated is Choosing the Wedding Gown 



O'CuRRY, Eugene (1794-1862), Irish -scholar, was 
born at Dunaha, near Carrigaholt, Co. Clare, his 
father, a small farmer, being an enthusiastic Gael. In 
1834 a life of uncongenial labour was terminated for 
O'Curry by a post in the Ordnance Survey under 
Petrie [q.v. Leinster volume], where his duties, involving 
research in the Dublin libraries, enabled him to lay the 
foundation of his unrivalled knowledge of ancient Irish 
manuscripts. On the establishment of the Catholic 
University in 1854, he wa s appointed to the chair of 
Irish History and Archaeology. His lectures, published 
as Manuscript Materials for Ancient Irish History (1861) 
and On the Manners and Customs of the Ancient Irish 
(1873), marked an era in the study of Irish civilisation, and 
are still indispensable. In conjunction with O'Donovan 
[q.v. Ireland volume] he transcribed and translated the 
Ancient Laws of Ireland, death overtaking both these 
illustrious scholars as they were preparing the first 
volumes for the press. 

O'DALY, Donough Mor (d. 1244), in Irish Donnchadh 
mor Dalaigh, one of the greatest of native Munster 
poets, " who never was and never will be surpassed/' 
according to the Four Masters, was a native of Clare, 
and lived at Finnyvarra. His poems are mostly re- 
ligious, many being in praise of the Virgin. He is buried 
in the monastery of Boyle. 

OTiHELLY, Maurice (d. 1513), Archbishop of Tuam 



.DISTINGUISHED MUNSTERMEN 169 

generally known as Maurice de Portu or de Hibernia, 
was a native of Cork. He studied at Oxford, and, enter- 
ing the Franciscan Order, became Regent of the Schools 
at Milan and Padua. He was a noted classical scholar. 




Rev. George Salmon, D.D. 

aiding in the production of the classics in one of the 
great printing houses at Venice. He published many 
of the works of Duns Scotus, with commentaries, at 
Venice and Paris, between 1497 and 1513. He was 
appointed Archbishop of Tuam in 1506. 

O'SuLLiVAN, Owen Roe (c. 1748-84), the most popular 



170 MUNSTER 

native Minister poet, was born at Meentogues, near 
Killarney. He served for a time in the British navy, 
taking part in the Battle of the Saintes in 1782, under 
Rodney, to whom one of his odes is addressed. A writer 




Luke Wadding 

of great power and variety, his stirring Jacobite songs 
are immensely popular in the South of Ireland. 

SALMON, George, D.D., F.R.S. (1819-1904), mathe- 
matician and divine, was born at Cork. He became a 
Fellow of Trinity College in 1841, his first mathematical 
paper appearing in 1844. His chief works, translated 



DISTINGUISHED MUNSTERMEN 171 

into many languages, are Conic Sections (1847), which 
still remains the principal text-book on the subject ; 
Higher Plane Curves (1852), Modern Higher Algebra 
(1859), and Geometry of Three Dimensions (1862). From 
1866 to 1888, when he became Provost, he was 
Regius Professor of Divinity in Dublin University. As 
a theologian he is best known by his Introduction to the 
New Testament (1885). 

WADDING, Luke (1588-1657), historian and philoso- 
pher, was born at Waterford and educated at Lisbon, 
becoming a member of the Franciscan Order. His life 
was spent almost wholly in Rome, where he founded 
the College of St Isidore in 1625. It was at his instance 
that Rinuccini was sent as papal nuncio to Ireland in 
1642. He was a voluminous writer, his most important 
works being the history of his own Order, Annales 
Minor um Ordinum Franciscanorum (1625-54) and his 
edition of the works of Duns Scotus in 12 folio volumes, 
prepared in 1639. The remarkable portrait of him by 
Ribera (Spagnoletto) here reproduced is in the National 
Portrait Gallery, Dublin. 



INDEX 



ABBEYS and Monasteries 

Adare Augustinian Hermit- 
age, 124 

Adare Franciscan Abbey, 124 

Adare Trinitarian Monas- 
tery, 124 

Askeaton Franciscan Friary, 
122 

Athassel Augustinian Priory, 
119 

Corcomroe Abbey, 125 

Ennis Friary, 120 

Holy Cross Abbey, 117 

Kilcrea Abbey, 122 

KilmallockDominican Friary, 

120 

Adare, Desmond Castle, 135 
Aghadoe Cathedral, 126 
Agriculture, 156 
Ahenny High Cross, 115 
Allman, George James, 161 
Ancient population, i, 104 

vegetation, 57 
Annestown, 74 
Arbutus, 80, 83 
Ardfert Cathedral, 126 
Ardmore Cathedral, 127 
Ardtully, 74 
Area, 6, 140 
Armada wrecks, 117 
Arra mountains, 13, 54, 56 
Askeaton, 122 
Athassel, 119 
Auger, Lough, 67 

BACON curing, 153 
Ballycotton Bay, 36 
Ballyhoura mountains, 12 

172 



Ballymotey pillar stone, 109 
Ballyvaughan, 29 
Bandon, 46 

river, 22, 24, 25, 62 
Bantry, 46 

Bay, 11, 15 
Barrow, The, i, 37 
Barry, James, 162 
Barytes, 75 

Baurnadomeeny dolmen, 107 
Beenoskee, 17 
Beetles, 101 
Bere Island, 33, 38 
Birds, 92 
Black Castle, 109 
Blackwater, The, 8, 21, 36, 62 
Blasket Islands, 17, 32, 37, 

116 

Bogge r agh mountains, 14, 55 
Bolus Head, 37 
Boneen Bridge, 68 
Bourchier's Castle, 109 
Boundary, 6 
Boyle, Robert, 161 
Brandon, Mount, 17, 32 
Brendan the Voyager, 163 
Brewing, 153 
Brick-making, 76 
Burren, The, 6, 18, 59, 74, 84 
Butterflies, 100 
Buttevant, 46 

CAHA mountains, 15 
Caher, 50 

Caherbarnagh, 14, 22 
Caherconlish, 58 
Caherconree, 112 
Cahir Castle, 136 



INDEX 



I 73 



Canals, 29 
Cappoquin, 5, 36, 48 
Carrantuohj.il, 16 
Carrick Castle, 1 36 
Carrick-on-Suir, 50 
Carrigogunnil Castle, 58 
Carve, Thomas, 161 
Cashel, 51 

Rock of, 104, 129 
Castleisland, 17, 39, 75 
Castlemaine Harbour, 32 
Castles 

Adare, 135 

Black, 109 

Bourchier's, 109 

Cahir, 135 

Carrick, 136 

Carrigogunnil, 58 

Derrinlaur, 138 

Kiltinane, 138 

Limerick, 137 

Tickencor House, 138 

Waterford, 138 
Cathedrals 

Aghadoe, 126 

Ardfert, 126 

Ardmore, 127 

Cashel, 129 

Cloyne, 131 

Cork, 131 

Emly, 131 

Kilfenora, 132 

Killaloe, 132 

Limerick, 132 

Lismore, 133 

Ross, 133 

Waterford, 134 
Caves, Mitchelstown, 12, 58, 

IO2, I2O 

Cental mB&ice, The, 3 
Charleville, 5, 46 
Chemical works, 153 
Ciar-raighe, The, 2 
Clare, County, 2, 52, 106 
Clear, Cape, 34, 38 
Clear Island, 38 
Cliffs of Moher, 30, 59 



Climate, n 

Clochdns, no 

Clogher Head, 54 

Clonakilty, 46 

Clonmel, 50 

Cloyne Cathedral, 131 

Cnoc Rafann, 4 

Coal measures, 22, 52, 60, 76 

Cobh (formerly 'Queenstown), 

28, 35, 36, 46 

Comeragh mountains, 12, 21, 55 
Coomhola grits, 58, 77 
Copper ore, 74 
Corcomroe Abbey, 125 
Covcu Duibhne, The, 3 

Laighde, Th&, 3 
Cork Butter Exchange, 153 

Cathedral, 131 

City, 44 

County, 4, 42, 107 

Crawford Municipal Techni- 
cal Institute, 142 

Harbour, 24, 35, 36, 44, 46 

Industrial Development As- 
sociation, 153 

Our Lady's Mount Schools, 
147 

University College, 141 
Cormac's Chapel, 129 
Corn mills, 153 
Councils county, borough, 

urban and rural, 139 
Crannogs, 114 
Crosses, High, 114 
Curran, John Philpot, 163 

DAIRY Institute, Munster, 144 

Ddl gCais, The, 2 

Davis, Thomas, 163 

De La Salle Training College, 

Waterford, 147 
Derg, Lough, 6, 19, 24, 88, 92 
Derrinlaur Castle, 138 
Derrynane, 17 

Derrynasaggart mountains, 14 
Desmond Castle, Adare, 135 
Devil's Bit, The, 6, 13, 55 



174 



MUNSTER 



Dingle, 32, 39 

Bay, n, 15, 17, 32 
Dolmens, 106 
Donaghmore, Church of St 

Farannan, 134 
Dowden, Edward, 163 
Dtin Beag, ill 
Dungarvan, 36, 48 
Dunmanus Bay, 34 
Dunmanway, 46 
Dursey Island, 15, 33 
Dysert O'Dea Cross, 114 

EDUCATION, 141 
Emly Cathedral, 132 
Ennis, 31, 52 
Friary, 120 
Ennis tymon, 53 
Eoghan-acht, The, 3 
Erratics, 68 
Eskers, 71 

FASTNET, The, 38 

Fauna, 92 

Fenit, 32, 39 

Fergus, The, 52, 76 

Fermoy, 3, 46 

Ferriter, Pierce, 161 

Fethard, 51 

Fin Barre, St, 46 

Fir Muighe Feine, The, 3 

Fisheries, 158 

Fishes, 96 

Fitzgerald, Pierce, 161 

Flesk, The, 15 

Flora, n, So 

Forestry, 11, 157 

Forts, no 

Foynes, 31 

GALLERUS, Oratory of, 134 
Galtee mountains, 12, 55, 87 
Galtymore, 12, 51, 55 
Gap of Dunloe, 16, 66 
Geoffrey of Waterford, 161 
Glacial period, 64 
Glashaboy, The, 68 
Glengarriff, 15, 34, 89 



Golden Vale, 48 
Gortnagulla dolmens, 108 
Gouganebarra, 24, 55 
Gough, Field Marshal, 164 
Goulding's Glen, 68 
" Great Clave Find," 105 
Griffin, Gerald, 164 
Guitane, Lough, 56, 67 
Gur, Loch, 108, 114 

HARVEY, William Henry, 164 
Haulbowline, 153 
Herbertstown, 58 
Hibernicus, Thomas, 161 
High Crosses, 114 
Hincks, Edward, 166 
Hogan, John, 166 
Holy Cross Abbey, 117 
Hungry Hill, 15 

IRISH speakers, 5 
Ivernoi, The, i 

KANTURK, 46 
Keamaneigh, Pass of, 68 
Keating, Geoffrey, 166 
Keeper Hill, 13, 56 
Kelp, 159 
Kenmare, 33, 39 

River, i, n, 15, 33, 39 
Kerry, County, 2, 4, 38, 90, 108 

Head, 30, 31 

Slug, 97 

Kickham, Charles Joseph, 167 
Kilcommon dolmens, 106 
Kilcrea Abbey, 122 
Kilfenora Cathedral, 132 
Kilkee, 30, 52, 60 
Killaloe, 20, 52 

Cathedral, 132 
Killarney, 39, 42 

Lakes of, 39, 67, 82 
Killorglin, 39 
KLmakeldar Church, 134 
Kilmallock, Church of St Peter 
and St Paul, 135 

Dominican Friary, 120 
Kilnabby Cross, 116 



INDEX 



Kilrush, 52 
Kiltinane Castle, 138 
Kilvickadownig fort, no 
King John's Castle, Limerick, 

137 
Kinsale, 35, 46 

Old Head of, 35 
Knockboy, 15 
Knockeen dolmen, 109 
Knockfeerina Hill, 56 
Knockgraffon mote, 113 
Knockmeald own mountains, 12, 
21, 55 

LACE-MAKING, 154 

Lake dwellings, 114 

Lakes, 18 

Lakes of Killarney, 39, 67, 82 

Lax Weir, 160 

Lead mines, 75 

Leane, Lough, 39 

Lee, The, i, 8, 22, 62 

Limerick Castle, 137 

Cathedral, 132 

City, 51, 154 

County, 2, 4, 51, 108 

Laurel Hill Convent, 147 

Technical Institute, 145 
Limestone, 58, 75 

quarries, 75 
Liosavigeen fort, 108 
Liscannor Bay, 30 
Lisdoonvarna springs, 53 
Lismore, 48, 113 

Cathedral, 133 
Listowel, 31, 39, 76 

and Ballybunion Railway, 28 
Lombard, Peter, 161 
Long Reach, Killarney, 39 
Loo Bridge, 56 
Loop Head, 30 

MAC BRODY, 'Tadhg, 161 
Mac^illicuddy's Reeks, 16,55, 80 
Maclise, Daniel, 161 
MacMahon Tomb, 121 
Macroom, 46 



Mahon, Lough, 36 

Mallow, 5, 46 

Mangerton, 16 

Marble, 75 

Maurice de Portu, 169 

Merryman, Bryan, 167 

Midleton, 75 

Mines and minerals, 74 

Mitchelstown, 46 

Caves, 12, 58, 102, 120 
Mizen Head, 34 
Moher, Cliffs of, 30, 59 
Monastic foundations, 117 
Mono-railway, Co. Kerry, 28, 31 
Moraines, 66 
Moths, loo 
Mountains, 12 
Muckross Lake, 39 
Muintear Bdire, The, 3 
Mulready, William, 167 
Munster Dairy Institute, 144 
Muscraighe, The, 3 

NAGLES mountains, 55 
Natural features, 7 
Nenagh, 51, 76 
Newcastle West, 52, 76 
Nore, The, 37 

O'BRIEN'S Tower, 60 
O'Bruadair, David, 161 
O'Connell, Daniel, 161 
O'Curry, Eugene, 168 
O'Daly, Aonghus Fionn, 161 

Donough M6r, 168 
Geoffrey Fionn, 161 
O'Fihelly, Maurice, 168 
Ogham stones, 114 
O'Rahilly, Egan, 161 
Oratory of Gallerus, 134 
O'Sullivan, Owen Roe, 169 
O'Tuomy, John, 161 
Our Lady's Mount Schools, 
Cork, 147 

PALLASGREEN, 58 
Paps, The, 14, 55 



176 



MU.NSTER 



Parknasilla, 33 
Pass of Keamaneigh, 68 
Population, 5, 140 
Potter's clay, 76 
Purple mountains, 17 

QUEENSTOWN. See Cobh. 

RAILWAYS, 25 
Rainfall, n 
Rathkeale, 52 
Red Deer, 92 
Reginald's Tower, 138 
Reptiles, 96 
Rivers, 18 

Rock of Cashel, 104, 129 
Rockwell College, Cashel, 147 
Roscrea, 51 
Ross Cathedral, 133 
Island, 74 

SALMON, George, 170 
Shannon, Estuary of, 31, 88 

River, 6, 13, 18, 51 

Gorge, 53, 63 
Shipbuilding, 153 
Shipping, 153 
Silvermines mountains, 48, 54, 

56, 75 

Skelligs, The, 37, 116 
SMbbereen, 46 
Slate quarries, 76 
Slieve Ardagh coal-field, 76 
SUeve Aughty hills, 6, 13, 54 
Slieve Bernagh hills, 13, 52, 54 
SJieve Bloom, 6 
Slieve Elva, 18 
Slieve Miskish mountains, 15 
Slievenaman, 4, 12 
Slievenamuck, 55 
Sneem, 33 
Soils, 73 
Spiders, 102 
Staigue Fort, no 
Stone circles, 107 

huts, no 
Suir, The, i, 7, 20, 37, 64 



TANNING, 153 
Tattan's Gorse, 68 
Tearaght lighthouse, 37 
Telegraph cables, transatlantic, 

33 

Temperature, n 
Templemore, 51 
Thurles, 51 
Tickencor House, 138 
Tipperary, county, 4, 48, 106 

town, 51 

Tobacco growing, 154 
" Tomb of the Good Woman* s 

Son" 1x8 
Traffic routes, 25 
Tralee, 32, 39, 76, 146 
Tramore, 36, 48 

Ui Fidhgheinte, The, 2 

Fothaid, The, 3 

Liathdin, The, 3 

Rdthach, The, 3 
University College, Cork, 141 
Upper Lake, Killarney, 39, 82 

VALENCIA Island, 32 

Vellabroi, The, i 

Volcanic activity, evidence of, 

53, 57 
Volcanic rocks, 53, 56 

WADDING, Luke, 171 
Wallace, William, 161 
Waterford Castle, 138 

Cathedral, 134 

City, 37, 48 

County, 4, 48, 109 

De La Salle Training College, 
147 

Haven, 37, 48 

Technical Institute, 144 

Ursuline Convent, 148 
Tell, St Dedan's,'i28 
AThite, Stephen, 161 
Woollen Industry, 150 

YOUGHAL, 36, 46, 76